CALL TO BOOK: 07 3720 1811

References for Amalgam and Mercury From Evolve Dental Healing Kenmore Holistic Dentist

Evolve Dental Healing Kenmore Dentist provides safe amalgam removal services as part of our approach to holistic dentistry. During numerous artilces and blogs Dr Rachel Hall dentist refers to the issues pertaining to silver amalgam fillings and mercury. This page contains a list of scientific references and citations that have been sourced in forumlating the opinion that mercury fillings pose a risk to health and wellbeing.

Bernhoft, R. A. (2011). Mercury toxicity and treatment: a review of the literature. Journal of Environmental and Public Health, 2012. Camisa, C., Taylor, J. S., Bernat Jr, J. R., & Helm, T. N. (1999). Contact hypersensitivity to mercury in amalgam restorations may mimic oral lichen planus. Cutis, 63(3), 189-192. Clarkson, T. W., Magos, L., & Myers, G. J. (2003). The toxicology of mercury—current exposures and clinical manifestations. New England Journal of Medicine, 349(18), 1731-1737. Clarkson, T.W. and Magos, L. (2006). The toxicology of mercury and its chemical compounds. Critical Reviews in Toxicology, 36(8), 609-662. Echeverria, D., Aposhian, H. V., Woods, J. S., Heyer, N. J., Aposhian, M. M., Bittner, A. C., Mahurin, R.K. & Cianciola, M. (1998). Neurobehavioral effects from exposure to dental amalgam Hgo: new distinctions between recent exposure and Hg body burden. The FASEB Journal, 12(11), 971-980. Health Canada. (1996). The Safety of Dental Amalgam. Retrieved from Health Canada Web site http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/hpfb-dgpsa/pdf/md-im/dent_amalgam-eng.pdf Kall, J., Robertson, K., Sukel, P., Just, A. (2016a). International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT) Position Statement against Dental Mercury Amalgam Fillings for Medical and Dental Practitioners, Dental Students, Dental Patients, and Policy Makers. ChampionsGate, FL: IAOMT. Kall, J., Just, A., Aschner, M. (2016b). What is the risk? Dental amalgam, mercury exposure, and human health risks throughout the lifespan (Chapter 7). Epigenetics, the Environment, and Children’s Health across Lifespans. David J. Hollar, ed. Switzerland: Springer International Publishing, 159-206. Klassen CD, editor. (2008). Casarette & Doull’s Toxicology (7th Edition). New York: McGraw-Hill Medical, 949. Lorscheider, F. L., Vimy, M. J., & Summers, A. O. (1995). Mercury exposure from” silver” tooth fillings: emerging evidence questions a traditional dental paradigm. The FASEB Journal, 9(7), 504-508. Magos, L., & Clarkson, T. W. (2006). Overview of the clinical toxicity of mercury. Annals of Clinical Biochemistry, 43(4), 257-268. Rice, K. M., Walker, E. M., Wu, M., Gillette, C., & Blough, E. R. (2014). Environmental mercury and its toxic effects. Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health, 47(2), 74-83. Richardson, G. M., Wilson, R., Allard, D., Purtill, C., Douma, S., & Graviere, J. (2011). Mercury exposure and risks from dental amalgam in the US population, post-2000. Science of the Total Environment, 409(20), 4257-4268. Risher JF. (2003). Elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds: human health aspects. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 50. Geneva, Switzerland: Published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, and the World Health Organization. Rooney, J. P. (2014). The retention time of inorganic mercury in the brain—A systematic review of the evidence. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 274(3), 425-435. Rothwell, J. A., & Boyd, P. J. (2008). Amalgam dental fillings and hearing loss. International Journal of Audiology, 47(12), 770-776. Syversen, T., & Kaur, P. (2012). The toxicology of mercury and its compounds. Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology, 26(4), 215-226. United States Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). (02/09/1994). Hazard Communication. Publication Type: Final Rules; Fed Register #: 59:6126-6184; Standard Number: 1910.1200; 1915.1200; 1917.28; 1918.90; 1926.59. United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). (Last updated January 15, 2016). Health effects of exposure to mercury: elemental (metallic) mercury effects. Retrieved from https://www.epa.gov/mercury/health-effects-exposures-mercury#metallic World Health Organization. (2005). Mercury in Health Care: Policy Paper. Geneva, Switzerland: Department of Protection of the Human Environment Water, Sanitation and Health 1 Berlin M. Mercury in dental-filling materials–an updated risk analysis in environmental medical terms. The Dental Material Commission-Care and Consideration. 2003:19. 2 World Health Organization. Mercury in Health Care [policy paper]. August 2005: 1. Available from WHO Web site: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/medicalwaste/mercurypolpaper.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 3 Pirrone N, Mason R. Mercury Fate and Transport in the Global Atmosphere: Emissions, Measurements, and Models. New York, New York: Springer. 2009: 166. 4 United States Environmental Protection Agency. International Mercury Market Study and the Role and Impact of US Environmental Policy. 2004. 5 Heintze SD, Rousson V. Clinical effectiveness of direct Class II restorations—a meta-analysis. J Adhes Dent. 2012; 14(5):407-431. 6 Makhija SK, Gordan VV, Gilbert GH, Litaker MS, Rindal DB, Pihlstrom DJ, Gvist V. Dental practice-based research network restorative material: Findings from the characteristics associated with type of practitioner, patient and carious lesion. J Am Dent Assoc. 2011; 142: 622-632. 7 Simececk JW, Diefenderfer KE, Cohen ME. An evaluation of replacement rates for posterior resin-based composite and amalgam restorations in U.S. Navy and Marine recruits. J Am Dent Assoc. 2009; 140 (2): 207. 8 Health Canada. The Safety of Dental Amalgam. 1996: 3. Available from Health Canada Web site: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/hpfbdgpsa/pdf/md-im/dent_amalgam-eng.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 9 United Nations Environment Programme. Minamata Convention on Mercury: Text and Annexes. 2013: 48. Available from UNEP’s Minamata Convention on Mercury Web site: http://www.mercuryconvention.org/Portals/11/documents/Booklets/Minamata%20Convention%20on%20Mercury_booklet_English.p df. Accessed December 15, 2015. 10 Ministry of the Environment, Norway. Minister of the Environment and International Development Erik Solheim: Bans mercury in products [Press release]. 2007 December 21. Available from Government of Norway Web site: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/Bans-mercury-in-products/id495138/. Accessed December 15, 2015. 11 Swedish Chemicals Agency. The Swedish Chemicals Agency’s chemical products and biotechnical organisms regulations. (KIFS 2 The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 12 28 Björkman L, Sandborgh-Englund G, Ekstrand J. Mercury in saliva and feces after removal of amalgam fillings. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology. 1997; 144(1):156-62. Abstract available from http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0041008X9798128X. Accessed December 15, 2015. 29 Larose P. Position Paper. IAOMT Environmental Committee; 2011. Available from IAOMT Web site: https://iaomt.org/wp-content/uploads/article_02- 03-Environment.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 30 Skare I, Engqvist A. Human exposure to mercury and silver released from dental amalgam restorations. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal. 1994; 49(5): 392-3. 31 Skare I, Engqvist A. Human exposure to mercury and silver released from dental amalgam restorations. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal. 1994; 49(5): 392-3. 32 Silbernagel SM, Carpenter DO, Gilbert SG, Gochfeld M, Groth E, Hightower JM, Schiavone FM. Recognizing and preventing overexposure to methylmercury from fish and seafood consumption: information for physicians. Journal of Toxicology. 2011. Available from http://www.hindawi.com/journals/jt/2011/983072/. Accessed December 15, 2015. 33 Hylander LD, Goodsite ME. Environmental costs of mercury pollution. Science of the Total Environment. 2006; 368(1):366. 34 United Nations Environment Programme. Global Mercury Assessment 2013: Sources, Emissions, Releases and Environmental Transport. Geneva, Switzerland: UNEP Chemicals Branch; 2013: 10. Available from UNEP Web site. http://www.unep.org/PDF/PressReleases/GlobalMercuryAssessment2013.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 35 Ziff S, Ziff MF. Dental mercury—an environmental hazard: other sources of dental mercury environmental contamination. BioProbe Newsletter. September 1992; 8(5):4. Available from: http://www.keytoxins.com/hgbiblio-files/ziffs/bioprobe/Bioprobe_1992_Sept_Volume8_Issue5.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 36 Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs (Defra, UK). Mercury Emissions from Crematoria. Consultation on an Assessment by the Environment Agency’s Local Authority Unit. 2003: 2. 37 National Funeral Directors Association. What impact will the EPA Clean Air Act rule have on crematories? June 2013 Update. Available from National Funeral Directors Association Web site: http://nfda.org/additional-tools-cremation/2631-what-impact-will-the-new-epa-proposal-have-on-crematories.html. Accessed December 15, 2015. 38 Christiansen P, Larson M. Mercury removal prior to cremation: a collaboration of dentistry and mortuary science to prevent environmental contamination. Available from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Mercury+removal+prior+to+cremation%3A+a+collaboration+of+dentistry+and…-a0216339047. Accessed December 15, 2015. 39 Culross M. Lawsuit alleges East Oakland air too polluted to allow crematorium. 5 KPIX CBS San Francisco. 2013 December 12. Available from: http://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/2013/12/12/lawsuit-alleges-east-oakland-air-too-polluted-to-allow-crematorium/. Accessed December 15, 2015. 40 Chea T. Cremation pollution?: neighbors nervous. MSNBC and Associated Press. 2007 January 16. Available from MSNBC Web site: http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/16656749/ns/us_news-environment/t/cremation-pollution-neighbors-nervous/. Accessed December 15, 2015. 41 Cited as American Dental Hygienists’ Association. Dental characteristics of the older adult. Available at http://www.adha.org/CE_courses/course11/ characteristics.htm. Accessed Apr. 2009. in Christiansen P, Larson M. Mercury removal prior to cremation: a collaboration of dentistry and mortuary science to prevent environmental contamination. Available from: http://www.thefreelibrary.com/Mercury+removal+prior+to+cremation%3A+a+collaboration+of+dentistry+and…-a0216339047. Accessed December 15, 2015. 42 Mari M, Domingo JL. Toxic emissions from crematories: a review. Environment international. 2010; 36(1):137. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Montse_Mari/publication/26888045_Toxic_emissions_from_crematories_a_review/links/54353dc70cf2dc341dafb6d6.p df. Accessed December 15, 2015. 43 Hylander LD, Goodsite ME. Environmental costs of mercury pollution. Science of the Total Environment. 2006; 368(1):366. 44 Stone ME, Cohen ME, Debban BA. Mercury vapor levels in exhaust air from dental vacuum systems. Dental Materials. 2007; 23(5):527-32. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0109564106000881. Accessed December 15, 2015. 45 Rubin PG, Yu MH. Mercury vapor in amalgam waste discharged from dental office vacuum units. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal. 1996; 51(4):335-7. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00039896.1996.9936036. Accessed December 15, 2015. 46 Stone ME, Cohen ME, Debban BA. Mercury vapor levels in exhaust air from dental vacuum systems. Dental Materials. 2007; 23(5):527-32. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0109564106000881. Accessed December 15, 2015. 47 Rubin PG, Yu MH. Mercury vapor in amalgam waste discharged from dental office vacuum units. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal. 1996; 51(4):335-7. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00039896.1996.9936036. Accessed December 15, 2015. 48 Khwaja MA, Abbasi MS, Mehmood F, Jahangir S. Study of high levels indoor air mercury contamination from mercury amalgam use in dentistry. Sci. Tech. and Dev. 2014; 33 (2): 94. 49 Many scientific studies support this fact, but one example of this being reported from a reputable government agency is Health Canada. The Safety of Dental Amalgam. 1996: 4. Available from Health Canada Web site: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/hpfb-dgpsa/pdf/md-im/dent_amalgameng.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 50 Al-Saleh I, Al-Sedairi A. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: The impact of dental amalgam. Sci Total Environ. 2011; 409(16):3003-3015. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711004359. Accessed December 16, 2015. 51 Barregård L. Biological monitoring of exposure to mercury vapor. Scandinavian Journal of Work, Environment & Health. 1993:45-9. Available from: http://www.sjweh.fi/download.php?abstract_id=1532&%3Bfile_nro=1&origin=publication_detail. Accessed December 18, 2015. 52 Boyd ND, Benediktsson H, Vimy MJ, Hooper DE, Lorscheider FL. Mercury from dental “silver” tooth fillings impairs sheep kidney function. Am J Physiol. 1991; 261(4 Pt 2):R1010-4. Abstract available from: http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/261/4/R1010.short. Accessed December 16, 2015. 53 Danscher G, Hørsted-Bindslev P, Rungby J. Traces of mercury in organs from primates with amalgam fillings. Experimental and Molecular Pathology. 1990; 52(3):291-9. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/001448009090070T. Accessed December 18, 2015. 54 Fredin B. The distribution of mercury in various tissues of guinea-pigs after application of dental amalgam fillings (a pilot study). Sci Total Environ. 1987; 66: 263-268. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0048969787900933. Accessed December 16, 2015. 55 Fredin B, Krabisch L. In vitro investigation of the possible influence of inorganic mercury and hydrogen peroxide on the formation of peroxides in a polyunsaturated fatty acid system (linoleic acid). The International Journal of Risk & Safety in Medicine. 1992; 4(1):19-25. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/23511174. Accessed December 18, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 13 56 Godfrey ME, Wojcik DP, Krone CA. Apolipoprotein E genotyping as a potential biomarker for mercury neurotoxicity. J Alzheimers Dis. 2003; 5(3):189- 195. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12897404. Accessed December 17, 2015. 57 Hahn LJ, Kloiber R, Vimy MJ, Takahashi Y, Lorscheider FL. Dental” silver” tooth fillings: a source of mercury exposure revealed by whole-body image scan and tissue analysis. The FASEB Journal. 1989; 3(14):2641-6. Available from: http://www.fasebj.org/content/3/14/2641.full.pdf. Accessed December 18, 2015. 58 Hahn LJ, Kloiber R, Leininger RW, Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL. Whole-body imaging of the distribution of mercury released from dental fillings into monkey tissues. The FASEB Journal. 1990; 4(14):3256-60. 59 Haley BE. Mercury toxicity: genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects. Medical Vertias. 2005; 2(2): 535-542. Hanson M, Pleva J. The dental amalgam issue. A review. Experientia. 1991; 47(1):9-22. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jaro_Pleva/publication/21157262_The_dental_amalgam_issue._A_review/links/00b7d513fabdda29fa000000.pdf. Accessed December 18, 2015. 60 Krausß P, Deyhle M, Maier KH, Roller E, Weiß HD, Clédon P. Field study on the mercury content of saliva. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 1997; 63, (1-4):29-46. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02772249709358515#.VnM7_PkrIgs. Accessed December 16, 2015. 61 Martin MD, Naleway C, Chou HN. Factors contributing to mercury exposure in dentists. J Am Dent Assoc. 1995; 126(11):1502-1511. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002817715607851. Accessed December 16, 2015. 62 Molin M, Bergman B, Marklund SL, Schütz A, Skerfving S. Mercury, selenium, and glutathione peroxidase before and after amalgam removal in man. Acta Odontologica. 1990;48(3):189-202. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00016359009005875?journalCode=iode20. Accessed December 18, 2015. 63 Mortada WL, Sobh MA, El-Defrawi, MM, Farahat SE. Mercury in dental restoration: is there a risk of nephrotoxity? J Nephrol. 2002; 15(2): 171-176. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/12018634. Accessed December 16, 2015. 64 Redhe O, Pleva J. Recovery of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and from allergy after removal of dental amalgam fillings. Int J Risk & Safety in Med. 1994; 4(3): 229-236. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jaro_Pleva/publication/235899060_Recovery_from_amyotrophic_lateral_sclerosis_and_from_allergy_after_removal_o f_dental_amalgam_fillings/links/0fcfd513f4c3e10807000000.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 65 Richardson GM. Inhalation of mercury-contaminated particulate matter by dentists: an overlooked occupational risk. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2003; 9(6): 1519-1531. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10807030390251010#.VnNn0vkrIgs. Accessed December 17, 2015. 66 Richardson GM, Brecher RW, Scobie H, Hamblen J, Samuelian J, Smith C. Mercury vapour (Hg(0)): Continuing toxicological uncertainties, and establishing a Canadian reference exposure level. Regul Toxicol Pharmicol. 2009; 53(1):32-38. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230008002304. Accessed December 17, 2015. 67 Snapp KR, Boyer DB, Peterson LC, Svare CW. The contribution of dental amalgam to mercury in blood. Journal of Dental Research. 1989; 68(5):780-5. Abstract available from: http://jdr.sagepub.com/content/68/5/780.short. Accessed December 18, 2015. 68 Summers AO, Wireman J, Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL, Marshall B, Levy SB, Bennet S, Billard L. Mercury released from dental ‘silver’ fillings provokes an increase in mercury- and antibiotic- resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal flora of primates. Antimicrob Agents and Chemother. 1993; 37(4): 825-834. Available from http://aac.asm.org/content/37/4/825.full.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 69 Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL. Clinical Science Intra-oral Air Mercury Released from Dental Amalgam. Journal of Dental Research. 1985; 64(8):1069-71. Abstract available from: http://jdr.sagepub.com/content/64/8/1069.short. Accessed December 17, 2015. 70 Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL. Serial measurements of intra-oral air mercury: estimation of daily dose from dental amalgam. Journal of Dental Research. 1985; 64(8):1072-5. Abstract available from: http://jdr.sagepub.com/content/64/8/1072.short. Accessed December 17, 2015. 71 Scientific studies support this fact, but one example of this being reported from a reputable U.S. environmental group State of Connecticut Department of Environmental Protection. Fillings: the choices you have: mercury amalgam and other filling materials [brochure]. 2006: 3. Available from Connecticut’s Official State Web site: http://www.ct.gov/deep/lib/deep/mercury/gen_info/fillings_brochure.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 72 Scientific studies support this fact, but another example of this being reported from a reputable U.S. environmental group is Advisory Committee on Mercury Pollution. Dental amalgam fillings: environmental and health facts for dental patients [dental fact sheet]. 2010: 1. Available from the Vermont Department of Environmental Conservation Mercury Education & Reduction Campaign Web site: http://www.mercvt.org/PDF/DentalAmalgamFactSheet.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 73 Dunn JE, Trachtenberg FL, Barregard L, Bellinger D, McKinlay S. Scalp hair and urine mercury content of children in the Northeast United States: the New England Children’s Amalgam Trial. Environmental Research. 2008; 107(1):79-88. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2464356/. Accessed December 17, 2015. 74 Isacsson G, Barregård L, Seldén A, Bodin L. Impact of nocturnal bruxism on mercury uptake from dental amalgams. European Journal of Oral Sciences. 1997; 105(3):251-7. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0722.1997.tb00208.x/abstract. Accessed December 17, 2015. 75 Sällsten G, Thoren J, Barregård L, Schütz A, Skarping G. Long-term use of nicotine chewing gum and mercury exposure from dental amalgam fillings. Journal of Dental Research. 1996; 75(1):594-8. Abstract available from: http://jdr.sagepub.com/content/75/1/594.short. Accessed December 17, 2015. 76 Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL. Clinical Science Intra-oral Air Mercury Released from Dental Amalgam. Journal of Dental Research. 1985; 64(8):1069-71. Abstract available from: http://jdr.sagepub.com/content/64/8/1069.short. Accessed December 17, 2015. 77 Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL. Serial measurements of intra-oral air mercury: estimation of daily dose from dental amalgam. Journal of Dental Research. 1985; 64(8):1072-5. Abstract available from: http://jdr.sagepub.com/content/64/8/1072.short. Accessed December 17, 2015. 78 Health Canada. The Safety of Dental Amalgam. 1996: 4. Available from Health Canada Web site: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/hpfbdgpsa/pdf/md-im/dent_amalgam-eng.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 79 Karahalil B, Rahravi H, Ertas N. Examination of urinary mercury levels in dentists in Turkey. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005; 24(8):383-388. Abstract available from: http://het.sagepub.com/content/24/8/383.short. Accessed December 16, 2015. 80 Lönnroth EC, Shahnavaz H. Dental clinics–a burden to environment? Swed Dent J. 1996; 20(5):173. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/9000326. Accessed December 16, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 14 81 Martin MD, Naleway C, Chou HN. Factors contributing to mercury exposure in dentists. J Am Dent Assoc. 1995; 126(11):1502-1511. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002817715607851. Accessed December 16, 2015. 82 Nimmo A, Werley MS, Martin JS, Tansy MF. Particulate inhalation during the removal of amalgam restorations. J Prosth Dent. 1990; 63(2):228-33. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/002239139090110X. Accessed December 16, 2015. 83 Oliveira MT, Constantino HV, Molina GO, Milioli E, Ghizoni JS, Pereira JR. Evaluation of mercury contamination in patients and water during amalgam removal. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2014; 15(2):165. Abstract available from: http://search.proquest.com/openview/c9e4c284ca7b3fd3779621692411875c/1?pq-origsite=gscholar. Accessed December 18, 2015. 84 Richardson GM. Inhalation of mercury-contaminated particulate matter by dentists: an overlooked occupational risk. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2003; 9(6): 1519-1531. 85 Warwick R, O Connor A, Lamey B. Sample size = 25 for each mercury vapor exposure during dental student training in amalgam removal. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2013; 8(1):27. Available from: http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/203/art%253A10.1186%252F1745-6673-8- 27.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Foccup-med.biomedcentral.com%2Farticle%2F10.1186%2F1745-6673-8- 27&token2=exp=1450380047~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F203%2Fart%25253A10.1186%25252F1745-6673-8- 27.pdf*~hmac=6ae07046977e264c2d8d25ff12a5600a2b3d4b4f5090fbff92ce459bd389326d. Accessed December 16, 2015. 86 United States of America Department of Health and Human Services Food and Drug Administration, Center for Devices and Radiological Health Medical Devices Committee. Dental Products Panel [transcript]. December 15, 2010: 27. Transcript available from FDA Web site: http://www.fda.gov/downloads/AdvisoryCommittees/CommitteesMeetingMaterials/MedicalDevices/MedicalDevicesAdvisoryCommittee/DentalProductsPan el/UCM242363.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 87 World Health Organization. Mercury in Health Care [policy paper]. August 2005: 1. Available from WHO Web site: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/medicalwaste/mercurypolpaper.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 88 Dental mercury use banned in Norway, Sweden and Denmark because composites are adequate replacements. Reuters/PRNewswire-USNewswire Online. 2008 January 3. 89 Ministry of the Environment, Norway. (2007, December 21). Minister of the Environment and International Development Erik Solheim: Bans mercury in products [Press release]. Retrieved from Government of Norway Web site: https://www.regjeringen.no/en/aktuelt/Bans-mercury-in-products/id495138/. 90 Swedish Chemicals Agency. (2008). The Swedish Chemicals Agency’s chemical products and biotechnical organisms regulations. (KIFS 2008: 2 in English, consolidated up to KIFS 2012: 3). 91 BIO Intelligence Service. (2012). Study on the potential for reducing mercury pollution from dental amalgam and batteries. Final Report prepared for the European Commission- DG ENV. Retrieved from the European Commission Web site: http://ec.europa.eu/environment/chemicals/mercury/pdf/final_report_110712.pdf. 92 Health and Environment Alliance and Health Care without Harm. (2007, May). Mercury and dental amalgams [Fact sheet]. Retrieved from Health and Environment Alliance Web site: http://www.env-health.org/IMG/pdf/HEA_009-07.pdf 93 Watson D, and 18 other members of Congress. Dear Acting Commissioner Dr. Joshua Sharfstein…[Congressional letter] Washington, D.C. 2009 May 14. Copy of letter available upon request to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it. 94 Watson, D (Congresswoman). Mercury in Dental Filling Disclosure and Prohibition Act. Los Angeles, CA. 2001 November 5. Available from: http://amalgamillness.com/Text_DCAct.html. Accessed December 16, 2015. 95 Björnberg KA, Vahter M, Petersson-Grawe K, Glynn A, Cnattingius S, Darnerud PO, Atuma S, Aune M, Becker W, Berglund M. Methyl mercury and inorganic mercury in Swedish pregnant women and in cord blood: influence of fish consumption. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003 Apr;111(4):637– 41. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241457/pdf/ehp0111-000637.pdf&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm29zmnT2SVYZIpIJY1- xFZOaZbpMQ&oi=scholarr&ei=zFOKT7TVKJDa0QXU3cm3CQ&sqi=2&ved=0CCcQgAMoADAA. Accessed December 16, 2015. 96 Palkovicova L, Ursinyova M, Masanova V, Yu Z, Hertz-Picciotto I. Maternal amalgam dental fillings as the source of mercury exposure in developing fetus and newborn. J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol. 2008; 18(3):326-331. Available from: http://www.nature.com/jes/journal/v18/n3/full/7500606a.html. Accessed December 16, 2015. 97 Ask K, Akesson A, Berglund M, Vahter M. Inorganic mercury and methylmercury in placentas of Swedish women. Environ Health Perspect. 2002; 110(5):523-6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240842/pdf/ehp0110-000523.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 98 Drasch G, Schupp I, Hofl H, Reinke R, Roider G. Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues. Eur J Pediatr. 1994; 153(8):607–10. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02190671. Accessed December 16, 2015. 99 Lutz E, Lind B, Herin P, Krakau I, Bui TH, Vahter M. Concentrations of mercury, cadmium and lead in brain and kidney of second trimester fetuses and infants. J Trace Elem Med Biol. 1996; 10(2):61–7. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0946672X96800137. Accessed December 16, 2015. 100 Drasch G, Schupp I, Hofl H, Reinke R, Roider G. Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues. Eur J Pediatr. 1994; 153(8):607–10. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02190671. Accessed December 16, 2015. 101 Lindow SW, Knight R, Batty J, Haswell SJ. Maternal and neonatal hair mercury concentrations: the effect of dental amalgam. Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology. 2003; 23(S1):S48-S49. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Robert_Knight4/publication/10864434_Maternal_and_neonatal_hair_mercury_concentrations_the_effect_of_dental_am algam/links/543fc3110cf21227a11b7820.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 102 Drasch G, Schupp I, Hofl H, Reinke R, Roider G. Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues. Eur J Pediatr. 1994; 153(8):607–10. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02190671. Accessed December 16, 2015. 103 Drasch G, Schupp I, Hofl H, Reinke R, Roider G. Mercury burden of human fetal and infant tissues. Eur J Pediatr. 1994; 153(8):607–10. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF02190671. Accessed December 16, 2015. 104 Björnberg KA, Vahter M, Petersson-Grawe K, Glynn A, Cnattingius S, Darnerud PO, Atuma S, Aune M, Becker W, Berglund M. Methyl mercury and inorganic mercury in Swedish pregnant women and in cord blood: influence of fish consumption. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2003 Apr;111(4):637– 41. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1241457/pdf/ehp0111-000637.pdf&sa=X&scisig=AAGBfm29zmnT2SVYZIpIJY1- xFZOaZbpMQ&oi=scholarr&ei=zFOKT7TVKJDa0QXU3cm3CQ&sqi=2&ved=0CCcQgAMoADAA. 105 da Costa SL, Malm O, Dorea JG. Breast-milk mercury concentrations and amalgam surface in mothers from Brasilia, Brasil. Biol Trace Elem Res. 2005; 106(2): 145–51. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1385/BTER:106:2:145. Accessed December 16, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 15 106 Oskarsson A, Schutz A, Schkerving S, Hallen IP, Ohlin B, Lagerkvist BJ. Total and inorganic mercury in breast milk in relation to fish consumption and amalgam in lactating women. Arch Environ Health. 1996; 51(3):234-51. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00039896.1996.9936021. Accessed December 16, 2015. 107 Nourouzi E, Bahramifar N, Ghasempouri SM. Effect of teeth amalgam on mercury levels in the colostrums human milk in Lenjan. Environ Monit Access. 2012; 184(1): 375-380. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Seyed_Mahmoud_Ghasempouri/publication/51052927_Effect_of_teeth_amalgam_on_mercury_levels_in_the_colostru ms_human_milk_in_Lenjan/links/00463522eee955d586000000.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 108 Bellinger DC, Trachtenberg F, Daniel D, Zhang A, Tavares MA, McKinlay S. A dose-effect analysis of children’s exposure to dental amalgam and neuropsychological function: the New England Children’s Amalgam Trial. J Am Dent Assoc. 2007; 138(9):1210-6. Available from: http://jada.ada.org/article/S0002-8177(14)63190-1/abstract. Accessed December 18, 2015. 109 DeRouen TA, Martin MD, Leroux BG, Townes BD, Woods JS, Leitão J, Castro-Caldas A, et al. Neurobehavioral effects of dental amalgam in children: a randomized clinical trial. JAMA. 2006; 295(15):1784-1792. Available from: http://jama.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=202707. Accessed December 18, 2015. 110 Geier DA, Carmody T, Kern JK, King PG, Geier MR. A dose-dependent relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and urinary mercury levels: a further assessment of the Casa Pia Children’s Dental Amalgam Trial. Human & Experimental Toxicology. 2012; 31(1):11-7. Abstract available from: http://het.sagepub.com/content/31/1/11.short. Accessed December 16, 2015. 111 Geier DA, Carmody T, Kern JK, King PG, Geier MR. A significant dose-dependent relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and kidney integrity biomarkers A further assessment of the Casa Pia children’s dental amalgam trial. Human & Experimental Toxicology. 2012; 32(4):434-440. Abstract available from: http://het.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/08/09/0960327112455671.abstract. Accessed December 16, 2015. 112 Geier DA, Carmody T, Kern JK, King PG, Geier MR. A significant relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and urinary porphyrins: a further assessment of the Casa Pia children’s dental amalgam trial. Biometals. 2011; 24, (2):215-224. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10534-010-9387-0. Accessed December 16, 2015. 113 Guzzi G, Pigatto PD. Urinary mercury levels in children with amalgam fillings. Environ Health Perspect. 2008; 116(7):A286-7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2453182/. Accessed December 16, 2015. 114 Haley B. Response to the NIDCR funded Children’s Amalgam Testing publications in the JAMA 2006. Available from the IAOMT Web site: https://iaomt.org/wp-content/uploads/CAT_Haley_scientific_critique.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 115 Homme KG, Kern JK, Haley BE, Geier DA, King PG, Sykes LK, Geier MR. New science challenges old notion that mercury dental amalgam is safe. BioMetals. 2014; 27(1); 19-24. Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24420334. Accessed December 16, 2015. 116 Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Echeverria D, Russo JE, Martin MD, Bernardo MF, Luis HS, Vaz L, Farin FM. Modification of neurobehavioral effects of mercury by a genetic polymorphism of coproporphyrinogen oxidase in children. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012; 34(5):513-21. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462250/. Accessed December 18, 2015. 117 Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Russo JE, Martin MD, Pillai PB, Bammler TK, Farin FM. Genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyltransferase modify the neurobehavioral effects of mercury in children. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 2014; Part A, 77(6): 293-312. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15287394.2014.867210. Accessed December 18, 2015. 118 Woods JS, Martin MD, Leroux BG, DeRouen TA, Leitão JG, Bernardo MF, Luis HS, Simmonds PL, Kushleika JV, Huang Y. The contribution of dental amalgam to urinary mercury excretion in children. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2007; 115(10); 1527. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2022658/. Accessed December 18, 2015. 119 Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Echeverria D, Russo JE, Martin MD, Bernardo MF, Luis HS, Vaz L, Farin FM. Modification of neurobehavioral effects of mercury by a genetic polymorphism of coproporphyrinogen oxidase in children. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012; 34(5):513-21. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462250/. Accessed December 18, 2015. 120 Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Russo JE, Martin MD, Pillai PB, Bammler TK, Farin FM. Genetic polymorphisms of catechol-O-methyltransferase modify the neurobehavioral effects of mercury in children. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. 2014; Part A, 77(6): 293-312. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15287394.2014.867210. Accessed December 18, 2015. 121 Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Russo JE, Martin MD, Pillai PB, Farin FM. Modification of neurobehavioral effects of mercury by genetic polymorphisms of metallothionein in children. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2013; 39:36-44. Available from: http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3795926. Accessed December 18, 2015. 122 Dunn JE, Trachtenberg FL, Barregard L, Bellinger D, McKinlay S. Scalp hair and urine mercury content of children in the northeast United States: the New England children’s amalgam trial. Environ Res. 2008; 107(1):79–88. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2464356/. Accessed December 16, 2015. 123 Richardson GM. Assessment of mercury exposure risks from dental amalgam: final report. Health Canada; 1995. 124 Al-Saleh I, Al-Sedairi A. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: The impact of dental amalgam. Sci Total Environ. 2011; 409(16):3003-3015. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711004359. Accessed December 16, 2015. 125 Ask K, Akesson A, Berglund M, Vahter M. Inorganic mercury and methylmercury in placentas of Swedish women. Environ Health Perspect. 2002; 110(5):523-6. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1240842/pdf/ehp0110-000523.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 126 Berlin M. Mercury in dental amalgam: a risk analysis. SMDJ Seychelles Medical and Dental Journal, Special Issue. 2004;7(1): 154-158. 127 Dunn JE, Trachtenberg FL, Barregard L, Bellinger D, McKinlay S. Scalp hair and urine mercury content of children in the northeast United States: the New England children’s amalgam trial. Environ Res. 2008; 107(1):79–88. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2464356/. Accessed December 16, 2015. 128 Geier DA, Carmody T, Kern JK, King PG, Geier MR. A significant dose-dependent relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and kidney integrity biomarkers A further assessment of the Casa Pia children’s dental amalgam trial. Human & Experimental Toxicology. 2012; 32(4):434-440. Abstract available from: http://het.sagepub.com/content/early/2012/08/09/0960327112455671.abstract. Accessed December 16, 2015. 129 Geier DA, Carmody T, Kern JK, King PG, Geier MR. A significant relationship between mercury exposure from dental amalgams and urinary porphyrins: a further assessment of the Casa Pia children’s dental amalgam trial. Biometals. 2011; 24, (2):215-224. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10534-010-9387-0. Accessed December 16, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 16 130 Guzzi G, Pigatto PD. Urinary mercury levels in children with amalgam fillings. Environ Health Perspect. 2008; 116(7):A286-7. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2453182/. Accessed December 16, 2015. 131 Haley BE. Mercury toxicity: genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects. Medical Vertias. 2005; 2(2): 535-542. 132 Holmes, AS, Blaxill, MF, Haley, BE. Reduced levels of mercury in first baby haircuts of autistic children. Int J Toxicol. 2003. 22 (4): 277-85. Abstract available from: http://ijt.sagepub.com/content/22/4/277.short. Accessed December 16, 2015. 133 Vahter M, Akesson A, Lind B, Bjors U, Schutz A, Berglund M. Longitudinal study of methylmercury and inorganic mercury in blood and urine of pregnant and lactating women, as well as in umbilical cord blood. Environ Res. 2000; 84(2):186-94. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935100940982. Accessed December 16, 2015. 134 Al-Saleh I, Al-Sedairi A. Mercury (Hg) burden in children: The impact of dental amalgam. Sci Total Environ. 2011; 409(16):3003-3015. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711004359. Accessed December 16, 2015. 135 Cited as Skare I. Mass balance and systematic uptake of mercury released from dental amalgam fillings. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 1995; 80:59–67. And Health Canada. Health Canada position statement on dental amalgam, 15 September 1997, at website http://www.hcsc.gc.ca/main/drugs/zmfiles/english/issues/amalgam_position.html. In Risher, JF (ATSDR). Elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds: human health aspects. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 50. Geneva, Switzerland: Published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, and the World Health Organization; 2003. Available from: http://www.inchem.org/documents/cicads/cicads/cicad50.htm. Accessed December 16, 2016. 136 Godfrey ME, Wojcik DP, Krone CA. Apolipoprotein E genotyping as a potential biomarker for mercury toxicity. Journal of Alzheimer’s Disease. 2003; 5(3): 189-195. Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12897404. Accessed December 16, 2015. 137 Mutter J, Naumann J, Sadaghiani C, Schneider R, Walach H. Alzheimer disease: mercury as pathogenetic factor and apolipoprotein E as a moderator. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2004; 25(5): 331-339. Abstract available at http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15580166. Accessed December 16, 2015. 138 Sun YH, Nfor ON, Huang JY, Liaw YP. Association between dental amalgam fillings and Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based cross-sectional study in Taiwan. Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy. 2015; 7(1):1-6. Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13195-015-0150-1/fulltext.html. Accessed December 17, 2015. 139 Redhe O, Pleva J. Recovery of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and from allergy after removal of dental amalgam fillings. Int J Risk & Safety in Med. 1994; 4(3): 229-236. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jaro_Pleva/publication/235899060_Recovery_from_amyotrophic_lateral_sclerosis_and_from_allergy_after_removal_o f_dental_amalgam_fillings/links/0fcfd513f4c3e10807000000.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 140 Edlund C, Bjorkman L, Ekstrand J, Englund GS, Nord CE. Resistance of the normal human microflora to mercury and antimicrobials after exposure to mercury from dental amalgam fillings. Clinical Infectious Diseases. 1996; 22(6):944-50. Available from: http://cid.oxfordjournals.org/content/22/6/944.full.pdf. Accessed January 21, 2016. 141 Leistevuo J, Leistevuo T, Helenius H, Pyy L, Huovinen P, Tenovuo J. Mercury in saliva and the risk of exceeding limits for sewage in relation to exposure to amalgam fillings. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal. 2002; 57(4):366-70. 142 Mutter J. Is dental amalgam safe for humans? The opinion of the scientific committee of the European Commission. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 2011; 6:5. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/content/pdf/1745-6673-6-2.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 143 Summers AO, Wireman J, Vimy MJ, Lorscheider FL, Marshall B, Levy SB, Bennet S, Billard L. Mercury released from dental ‘silver’ fillings provokes an increase in mercury- and antibiotic- resistant bacteria in oral and intestinal flora of primates. Antimicrob Agents and Chemother. 1993; 37(4): 825-834. Available from http://aac.asm.org/content/37/4/825.full.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 144 Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR. A prospective study of prenatal mercury exposure from dental amalgams and autism severity. Neurobiolgiae Experimentals Polish Neuroscience Society. 2009; 69(2): 189-197. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19593333. Accessed December 16, 2015. 145 Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR. The biological basis of autism spectrum disorders: Understanding causation and treatment by clinical geneticists. Acta Neurobiol Exp (Wars). 2010; 70(2): 209-226. Available from: http://www.zla.ane.pl/pdf/7025.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 146 Mutter J, Naumann J, Schneider R, Walach H, Haley B. Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005: 26(5): 439-446. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16264412. Accessed December 16, 2015. 147 Bartova J, Prochazkova J, Kratka Z, Benetkova K, Venclikova C, Sterzl I. Dental amalgam as one of the risk factors in autoimmune disease. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2003; 24(1-2): 65-67. Available from: http://www.nel.edu/pdf_w/24_12/NEL241203A09_Bartova–Sterzl_wr.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 148 Cooper GS, Parks CG, Treadwell EL, St Clair EW, Gilkeson GS, Dooley MA. Occupational risk factors for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2004; 31(10): 1928-1933. Abstract available from: http://www.jrheum.org/content/31/10/1928.short. Accessed December 16, 2015. 149 Eggleston DW. Effect of dental amalgam and nickel alloys on T-lymphocytes: preliminary report. J Prosthet Dent. 1984; 51(5):617-23. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022391384904049. Accessed December 16, 2015. 150 Hultman P, Johansson U, Turley SJ, Lindh U, Enestrom S, Pollard KM. Adverse immunological effects and autoimmunity induced by dental amalgam and alloy in mice. FASEB J. 1994; 8(14):1183-90. Available from: http://www.fasebj.org/content/8/14/1183.full.pdf. 151 Lindqvist B, Mörnstad H. Effects of removing amalgam fillings from patients with diseases affecting the immune system. Medical Science Research. 1996; 24(5):355-356. 152 Prochazkova J, Sterzl I, Kucerkova H, Bartova J, Stejskal VDM. The beneficial effect of amalgam replacement on health in patients with autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2004; 25(3): 211-218. Available from: http://www.nel.edu/pdf_/25_3/NEL250304A07_Prochazkova_.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 153 Rachmawati D, Buskermolen JK, Scheper RJ, Gibbs S, von Blomberg BM, van Hoogstraten IM. Dental metal-induced innate reactivity in keratinocytes. Toxicology in Vitro. 2015; 30(1):325-30. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887233315002544. Accessed December 17, 2015. 154 Sterzl I, Procházková J, Hrdá P, Bártová J, Matucha P, Stejskal VD. Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 1999; 20:221-228. Available from: http://www.melisa.org/pdf/nialler.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 17 155 Venclikova Z, Benada O, Bartova J, Joska L, Mrklas L, Prochazkova J, Stejskal V, Podzimek S. In vivo effects of dental casting alloys. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006; 27:61. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/16892010. Accessed December 16, 2015. 156 Weiner JA, Nylander M, Berglund F. Does mercury from amalgam restorations constitute a health hazard? Sci Total Environ. 1990; 99(1-2):1-22. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/004896979090206A. Accessed December 16, 2015. 157 Bergdahl IA, Ahlqwist M, Barregard L, Björkelund C, Blomstrand A, Skerfving S, Sundh V, Wennberg M, Lissner L. Mercury in serum predicts low risk of death and myocardial infarction in Gothenburg women. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2013; 86(1): 71-77. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00420-012-0746-8. Accessed December 16, 2015. 158 Houston MC. Role of mercury toxicity in hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and stroke. The Journal of Clinical Hypertension. 2011; 13(8):621-7. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1751-7176.2011.00489.x/full. Accessed December 16, 2015. 159 Siblerud RL. The relationship between mercury from dental amalgam and the cardiovascular system. Science of the Total Environment. 1990; 99(1-2): 23-35. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/004896979090207B. Accessed December 16, 2015. 160 Kern JK, Geier DA, Bjørklund G, King PG, Homme KG, Haley BE, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Evidence supporting a link between dental amalgams and chronic illness, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and suicide. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2014; 35(7): 537-52. Available from: http://www.nel.edu/archive_issues/o/35_7/NEL35_7_Kern_537-552.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 161 Stejskal I, Danersund A, Lindvall A, Hudecek R, Nordman V, Yaqob A, Mayer W, Bieger W, Lindh U. Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(5): 289-298. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11460087. Accessed December 16, 2015. 162 Sterzl I, Prochazkova J, Hrda P, Matucha P, Stejskal VD. Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(3-4):221-228. Available from: http://www.melisa.org/pdf/nialler.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 163 Wojcik DP, Godfrey ME, Christie D, Haley BE. Mercury toxicity presenting as chronic fatigue, memory impairment and depression: diagnosis, treatment, susceptibility, and outcomes in a New Zealand general practice setting: 1994-2006. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006; 27(4): 415-423. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/16891999. Accessed December 16, 2015. 164 Rothwell JA, Boyd PJ. Amalgam fillings and hearing loss. International Journal of Audiology. 2008; 47(12): 770-776. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14992020802311224#.VnH7tkorIgs. Accessed December 16, 2015. 165 Barregard L, Fabricius-Lagging E, Lundh T, Molne J, Wallin M, Olausson M, Modigh C, Sallsten G. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: impact of different exposure sources. Environ, Res. Sweden, 2010; 110: 47-54. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Johan_Moelne/publication/40024474_Cadmium_mercury_and_lead_in_kidney_cortex_of_living_kidney_donors_Impa ct_of_different_exposure_sources/links/0c9605294e28e1f04d000000.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 166 Boyd ND, Benediktsson H, Vimy MJ, Hooper DE, Lorscheider FL. Mercury from dental “silver” tooth fillings impairs sheep kidney function. Am J Physiol. 1991; 261(4 Pt 2):R1010-4. Abstract available from: http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/261/4/R1010.short. Accessed December 16, 2015. 167 Fredin B. The distribution of mercury in various tissues of guinea-pigs after application of dental amalgam fillings (a pilot study). Sci Total Environ. 1987; 66: 263-268. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0048969787900933. Accessed December 16, 2015. 168 Mortada WL, Sobh MA, El-Defrawi, MM, Farahat SE. Mercury in dental restoration: is there a risk of nephrotoxity? J Nephrol. 2002; 15(2): 171-176. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/12018634. Accessed December 16, 2015. 169 Nylander M., Friberg L, Lind B. Mercury concentrations in the human brain and kidneys in relation to exposure from dental amalgam fillings. Swed Dent J. 1987; 11(5): 179-187. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/3481133. Accessed December 16, 2015. 170 Richardson GM, Wilson R, Allard D, Purtill C, Douma S, Gravière J. Mercury exposure and risks from dental amalgam in the US population, post2000. Sci Total Environ. 2011; 409(20):4257-4268. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711006607. Accessed December 16, 2015. 171 Spencer AJ. Dental amalgam and mercury in dentistry. Aust Dent J. 2000; 45(4):224-34. Available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1834-7819.2000.tb00256.x/pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 172 Weiner JA, Nylander M, Berglund F. Does mercury from amalgam restorations constitute a health hazard? Sci Total Environ. 1990; 99(1):1-22. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/004896979090206A. Accessed December 16, 2015. 173 Huggins HA, Levy TE. Cerebrospinal fluid protein changes in multiple sclerosis after dental amalgam removal. Altern Med Rev. 1998; 3(4): 295-300. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9727079. Accessed December 16, 2015. 174 Prochazkova J, Sterzl I, Kucerova H, Bartova J, Stejskal VD. The beneficial effect of amalgam replacement on health in patients with autoimmunity. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2004; 25(3):211-218. Available from: http://www.nel.edu/pdf_/25_3/NEL250304A07_Prochazkova_.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 175 Siblerud RL. A comparison of mental health of multiple sclerosis patients with silver/mercury dental fillings and those with fillings removed. Psychol Rep. 1992; 70(3c):1139-51. Abstract available from: http://www.amsciepub.com/doi/abs/10.2466/pr0.1992.70.3c.1139?journalCode=pr0. Accessed December 16, 2015. 176 Siblerud RL, Kienholz E. Evidence that mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in multiple sclerosis. The Science of the Total Environment. 1994; 142(3): 191-205. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0048969794903271. Accessed December 16, 2015. 177 Mutter J. Is dental amalgam safe for humans? The opinion of the scientific committee of the European Commission. Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology. 2011; 6:2. 178 Ngim C, Devathasan G. Epidemiologic study on the association between body burden mercury level and idiopathic Parkinson’s disease. Neuroepidemiology. 1989: 8(3):128-141. Abstract available from: http://www.karger.com/Article/Abstract/110175. Accessed December 16, 2015. 179 Venclikova Z, Benada O, Bartova J, Joska L, Mrklas L, Prochazkova J, Stejskal V, Podzimek S. In vivo effects of dental casting alloys. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006; 27:61. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/16892010. Accessed December 16, 2015. 180 Podzimek S, Prochazkova J, Buitasova L, Bartova J, Ulcova-Gallova Z, Mrklas L, Stejskal VD. Sensitization to inorganic mercury could be a risk factor for infertility. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005; 26(4), 277-282. Available from: http://www.nel.edu/26-2005_4_pdf/NEL260405R01_Podzimek.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 181 Rowland AS, Baird DD, Weinberg CR, Shore DL, Shy CM, Wilcox AJ. The effect of occupational exposure to mercury vapour on the fertility of female dental assistants. Occupat Environ Med. 1994; 51:28-34. Available from: http://oem.bmj.com/content/51/1/28.full.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 18 182 For a detailed list of additional health problems related to dental mercury, see Kall J, Just A, Aschner M. What’s the risk? Dental amalgam, mercury exposure, and human health risks throughout the lifespan. Epigenetics, the Environment, and Children’s Health across Lifespans. David J. Hollar, ed. Springer. 2016. pp. 159-206 (Chapter 7). And Kall J, Robertson K, Sukel P, Just A. International Academy of Oral Medicine and Toxicology (IAOMT) Position Statement against Dental Mercury Amalgam Fillings for Medical and Dental Practitioners, Dental Students, and Patients. ChampionsGate, FL: IAOMT. 2016. Available from the IAOMT Web site: https://iaomt.org/iaomt-position-paper-dental-mercury-amalgam/. Accessed December 18, 2015. 183 Kern JK, Geier DA, Bjørklund G, King PG, Homme KG, Haley BE, Sykes LK, Geier MR. Evidence supporting a link between dental amalgams and chronic illness, fatigue, depression, anxiety, and suicide. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2014; 35(7): 537-52. Available from: http://www.nel.edu/archive_issues/o/35_7/NEL35_7_Kern_537-552.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 184 Richardson GM. Inhalation of mercury-contaminated particulate matter by dentists: an overlooked occupational risk. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2003; 9(6):1519-1531. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10807030390251010. Accessed December 16, 2015. 185 Ahlbom A, Norell S, Rodvall Y, Nylander M. Dentists, dental nurses, and brain tumors. Br. Med. J. 1986; 292(6521):662. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1339649/pdf/bmjcred00224-0024.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 186 Akesson I, Schutz A, Attewell R, Skerfving S, Glantz PO. Status of mercury and selenium in dental personnel: impact of amalgam work and own fillings. Archives of Environmental Health: An International Journal. 1991; 46(2):102-9. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/00039896.1991.9937436. Accessed December 17, 2015. 187 Anglen J, Gruninger SE, Chou HN, Weuve J, Turyk ME, Freels S, Stayner LT. Occupational mercury exposure in association with prevalence of multiple sclerosis and tremor among US dentists. The Journal of the American Dental Association. 2015; 146(9):659-68. Abstract available from: http://jada.ada.org/article/S0002-8177(15)00630-3/abstract. Accessed December 18, 2015. 188 Buchwald H. Exposure of dental workers to mercury. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1972; 33(7):492-502. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0002889728506692. Accessed December 16, 2015. 189 Cooper GS, Parks CG, Treadwell EL, St Clair EW, Gilkeson GS, Dooley MA. Occupational risk factors for the development of systemic lupus erythematosus. J Rheumatol. 2004; 31(10):1928-1933. Available from: http://www.jrheum.org/content/31/10/1928.short. Accessed December 16, 2015. 190 Duplinsky TG, Cicchetti DV. The health status of dentists exposed to mercury from silver amalgam tooth restorations. International Journal of Statistics in Medical Research. 2012; 1(1):1-15. Available from: http://lifescienceglobal.bizmarksolutions.com/pms/index.php/ijsmr/article/download/433/pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 191 Echeverria D, Aposhian HV, Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Aposhian MM, Bittner AC, Mahurin RK, Cianciola M. Neurobehavioral effects from exposure to dental amalgam Hgo: new distinctions between recent exposure and body burden. FASEBJ. 1998; 12(11):971-980. Available from: http://www.fasebj.org/content/12/11/971.long. Accessed December 16, 2015. 192 Echeverria D, Heyer N, Martin MD, Naleway CA, Woods JS, Bittner AC. Behavioral effects of low-level exposure to Hg0 among dentists. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 1995; 17(2):161-8. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/089203629400049J. Accessed December 16, 2015. 193 Echeverria D, Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Rohlman D, Farin F, Li T, Garabedian CE. The association between a genetic polymorphism of coproporphyrinogen oxidase, dental mercury exposure and neurobehavioral response in humans. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2006; 28(1):39-48. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0892036205001492. Accessed December 16, 2015. 194 Echeverria D, Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Rohlman DS, Farin FM, Bittner AC, Li T, Garabedian C. Chronic low-level mercury exposure, BDNF polymorphism, and associations with cognitive and motor function. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2005; 27(6):781-796. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0892036205001285. Accessed December 16, 2015. 195 Fabrizio E, Vanacore N, Valente M, Rubino A, Meco G. High prevalence of extrapyramidal signs and symptoms in a group of Italian dental technicians. BMC Neurol. 2007; 7(1):24. Available from: http://www.biomedcentral.com/1471-2377/7/24. Accessed December 16, 2015. 196 Goodrich JM, Wang Y, Gillespie B, Werner R, Franzblau A, Basu N. Methylmercury and elemental mercury differentially associate with blood pressure among dental professionals. Int J Hyg Environ Health. 2013; 216(2):195-201. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3727420/. Accessed December 16, 2015. 197 Hilt B, Svendsen K, Syversen T, Aas O, Qvenild T, Sletvold H, Melø I. Occurrence of cognitive symptoms in dental assistants with previous occupational exposure to metallic mercury. Neurotoxicology. 2009; 30(6):1202-1206. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0161813X09001119. Accessed December 16, 2015. 198 Johnson KF. Mercury hygiene. Dental Clinics of North America. 1978; 22(3):477-89. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/277421. Accessed December 17, 2015. 199 Kanerva L, Lahtinen A, Toikkanen J, Forss H, Estlander T, Susitaival P, Jolanki R. Increase in occupational skin diseases of dental personnel. Contact Dermatitis. 1999; 40(2):104-108. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1999.tb06000.x/abstract. Accessed December 16, 2015. 200 Karahalil B, Rahravi H, Ertas N. Examination of urinary mercury levels in dentists in Turkey. Hum Exp Toxicol. 2005; 24(8):383-388. Abstract available from: http://het.sagepub.com/content/24/8/383.short. Accessed December 16, 2015. 201 Lee JY, Yoo JM, Cho BK, Kim HO. Contact dermatitis in Korean dental technicians. Contact Dermatitis. 2001; 45(1):13-16. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1034/j.1600-0536.2001.045001013.x/abstract?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=. Accessed December 16, 2015. 202 Lönnroth EC, Shahnavaz H. Amalgam in dentistry. A survey of methods used at dental clinics in Norrbotten to decrease exposure to mercury vapour. Swed Dent J. 1995; 19(1-2):55. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/7597632. Accessed December 16, 2015. 203 Martin MD, Naleway C, Chou HN. Factors contributing to mercury exposure in dentists. J Am Dent Assoc. 1995; 126(11):1502-1511. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002817715607851. Accessed December 16, 2015. 204 Ngim CH, Foo SC, Boey KW, Jeyaratnem J. Chronic neurobehavioural effects of elemental mercury in dentists. Br J Ind Med. 1992; 49(11):782-790. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1039326/pdf/brjindmed00023-0040.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 205 Nylander M, Friberg L, Eggleston D, Björkman L. Mercury accumulation in tissues from dental staff and controls in relation to exposure. Swed Dent J. 1989; 13(6):235-236. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/2603127. Accessed December 16, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 19 206 Oliveira MT, Constantino HV, Molina GO, Milioli E, Ghizoni JS, Pereira JR. Evaluation of mercury contamination in patients and water during amalgam removal. The Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice. 2014; 15(2):165. Abstract available from: http://search.proquest.com/openview/c9e4c284ca7b3fd3779621692411875c/1?pq-origsite=gscholar. Accessed December 18, 2015. 207 Parsell DE, Karns L, Buchanan WT, Johnson RB. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam. J Dent Educ. 1996; 60(5):453-458. Abstract available from: http://www.jdentaled.org/content/60/5/453.short. Accessed December 16, 2015. 208 Pérez-Gómez B, Aragonés N, Gustavsson P, Plato N, López-Abente G, Pollán, M. Cutaneous melanoma in Swedish women: occupational risks by anatomic site. Am J Ind Med. 2005; 48(4):270-281. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Beatriz_PerezGomez/publication/227715301_Cutaneous_melanoma_in_Swedish_women_Occupational_risks_by_anatomic_site/links/0deec519b27246a598000000.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 209 Richardson GM, Brecher RW, Scobie H, Hamblen J, Samuelian J, Smith C. Mercury vapour (Hg(0)): Continuing toxicological uncertainties, and establishing a Canadian reference exposure level. Regul Toxicol Pharmicol. 2009; 53(1):32-38. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230008002304. Accessed December 17, 2015. 210 Richardson GM. Inhalation of mercury-contaminated particulate matter by dentists: an overlooked occupational risk. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2003; 9(6):1519-1531. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10807030390251010. Accessed December 16, 2015. 211 Rojas M, Seijas D, Agreda O, Rodríguez M. Biological monitoring of mercury exposure in individuals referred to a toxicological center in Venezuela. Sci Total Environ. 2006; 354(2):278-285. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/David_Seijas/publication/7372790_Biological_monitoring_of_mercury_exposure_in_individuals_referred_to_a_toxicol ogical_center_in_Venezuela/links/0c9605253f5d25bbe9000000.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 212 Shapiro IM, Cornblath DR, Sumner AJ, Sptiz LK, Uzzell B, Ship II, Bloch P. Neurophysiological and neuropsychological function in mercury-exposed dentists. Lancet. 1982; 319(8282):1447-1150. Available from: http://www.thelancet.com/journals/lancet/article/PIIS0140-6736(82)92226- 7/abstract?cc=y=. Accessed December 16, 2015. 213 Uzzell BP, Oler J. Chronic low-level mercury exposure and neuropsychological functioning. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 1986; 8(5):581-593. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/01688638608405177. Accessed December 16, 2015. 214 Van Zyl I. Mercury amalgam safety: a review. The Journal of the Michigan Dental Association. 1999; 81(1):40-8. 215 Votaw AL, Zey J. Vacuuming a mercury-contaminated dental office may be hazardous to your health. The Dental Assistant. 1990; 60(1):27-9. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/1860523. Accessed December 17, 2015. 216 Zahir F, Rizwi SJ, Haq SK, Khan RH. Low dose mercury toxicity and human health. Environ Toxicol Pharmacol. 2005; 20(2):351-360. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Soghra_Haq/publication/51515936_Low_dose_mercury_toxicity_and_human_health/links/00b7d51bd5115b6ba900000 0.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 217 de Oliveira MT, Pereira JR, Ghizoni JS, Bittencourt ST, Molina GO. Effects from exposure to dental amalgam on systemic mercury levels in patients and dental school students. Photomed Laser Surg. 2010; 28(S2):S-111. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jefferson_Pereira/publication/47369541_Effects_from_exposure_to_dental_amalgam_on_systemic_mercury_levels_in_ patients_and_dental_school_students/links/02bfe50f9f8bf8946e000000.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 218 Warwick R, O Connor A, Lamey B. Sample size = 25 for each mercury vapor exposure during dental student training in amalgam removal. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2013; 8(1):27. Available from: http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/203/art%253A10.1186%252F1745-6673-8- 27.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Foccup-med.biomedcentral.com%2Farticle%2F10.1186%2F1745-6673-8- 27&token2=exp=1450380047~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F203%2Fart%25253A10.1186%25252F1745-6673-8- 27.pdf*~hmac=6ae07046977e264c2d8d25ff12a5600a2b3d4b4f5090fbff92ce459bd389326d. Accessed December 16, 2015. 219 White RR, Brandt RL. Development of mercury hypersensitivity among dental students. JADA. 1976; 92(6):1204-7. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002817776260320. Accessed December 16, 2015. 220 Gelbier S, Ingram J. Possible fetotoxic effects of mercury vapor: a case report. Public Health. 1989; 103(1):35-40. Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0033350689801003. Accessed December 16, 2015. 221 Lindbohm ML, Ylöstalo P, Sallmén M, Henriks-Eckerman ML, Nurminen T, Forss H, Taskinen H. Occupational exposure in dentistry and miscarriage. Occupational and environmental medicine. 2007; 64(2):127-33. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2078431/. Accessed December 17, 2015. 222 Olfert, SM. Reproductive outcomes among dental personnel: a review of selected exposures. Journal (Canadian Dental Association). 2006; 72(9), 821. 223 Rowland AS, Baird DD, Weinberg CR, Shore DL, Shy CM, Wilcox AJ. The effect of occupational exposure to mercury vapour on the fertility of female dental assistants. Occupat Environ Med. 1994; 51:28-34. Available from: http://oem.bmj.com/content/51/1/28.full.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 224 Sikorski R, Juszkiewicz T, Paszkowski T, Szprengier-Juszkiewicz T. Women in dental surgeries: reproductive hazards in exposure to metallic mercury. International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health. 1987; 59(6):551-557. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00377918. Accessed December 16, 2015. 225 Wasylko L, Matsui D, Dykxhoorn SM, Rieder MJ, Weinberg S. A review of common dental treatments during pregnancy: implications for patients and dental personnel. J Can Dent Assoc. 1998; 64(6):434-9. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/9659813. Accessed December 16, 2015. 226 Buchwald H. Exposure of dental workers to mercury. Am Ind Hyg Assoc J. 1972; 33(7):492-502. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/0002889728506692. Accessed December 16, 2015. 227 Johnson KF. Mercury hygiene. Dental Clinics of North America. 1978; 22(3):477-89. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/277421. Accessed December 17, 2015. 228 Kanerva L, Lahtinen A, Toikkanen J, Forss H, Estlander T, Susitaival P, Jolanki R. Increase in occupational skin diseases of dental personnel. Contact Dermatitis. 1999; 40(2):104-108. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1999.tb06000.x/abstract. Accessed December 16, 2015. 229 Lönnroth EC, Shahnavaz H. Amalgam in dentistry. A survey of methods used at dental clinics in Norrbotten to decrease exposure to mercury vapour. Swed Dent J. 1995; 19(1-2):55. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/7597632. Accessed December 16, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 20 230 Lönnroth EC, Shahnavaz H. Dental clinics–a burden to environment? Swed Dent J. 1996; 20(5):173. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/9000326. Accessed December 16, 2015. 231 Martin MD, Naleway C, Chou HN. Factors contributing to mercury exposure in dentists. J Am Dent Assoc. 1995; 126(11):1502-1511. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0002817715607851. Accessed December 16, 2015. 232 Nimmo A, Werley MS, Martin JS, Tansy MF. Particulate inhalation during the removal of amalgam restorations. J Prosth Dent. 1990; 63(2):228-33. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/002239139090110X. Accessed December 16, 2015. 233 Parsell DE, Karns L, Buchanan WT, Johnson RB. Mercury release during autoclave sterilization of amalgam. J Dent Educ. 1996; 60(5):453-458. Abstract available from: http://www.jdentaled.org/content/60/5/453.short. Accessed December 16, 2015. 234 Stonehouse CA, Newman AP. Mercury vapour release from a dental aspirator. Br Dent J. 2001; 190(10):558-60. Abstract available from: http://www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v190/n10/full/4801034a.html. Accessed December 16, 2015. 235 Perim SI, Goldberg AF. Mercury in hospital dentistry. Special Care in Dentistry. 1984; 4(2):54-5. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1754-4505.1984.tb00146.x/abstract. Accessed December 17, 2015. 236 Pleva J. Mercury from dental amalgams: exposure and effects. The International journal of risk & safety in medicine. 1992; 3(1):1-22. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/23510804. Accessed December 17, 2015. 237 Votaw AL, Zey J. Vacuuming a mercury-contaminated dental office may be hazardous to your health. The Dental Assistant. 1990; 60(1):27-9. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/1860523. Accessed December 17, 2015. 238 Warwick R, O Connor A, Lamey B. Sample size = 25 for each mercury vapor exposure during dental student training in amalgam removal. J Occup Med Toxicol. 2013; 8(1):27. Available from: http://download.springer.com/static/pdf/203/art%253A10.1186%252F1745-6673-8- 27.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F%2Foccup-med.biomedcentral.com%2Farticle%2F10.1186%2F1745-6673-8- 27&token2=exp=1450380047~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F203%2Fart%25253A10.1186%25252F1745-6673-8- 27.pdf*~hmac=6ae07046977e264c2d8d25ff12a5600a2b3d4b4f5090fbff92ce459bd389326d. Accessed December 16, 2015. 239 Wykle Research, Inc. “Section VIII: Safe Handling and Use.” Material Safety Data Sheet for Self Activating Capsules Original D and Phasealloy. (10/10/02). Available from: http://www.wykledirect.com/pdf%27s/MSDS.pdf. Accessed January 12, 2016. 240 World Health Organization. Mercury in Health Care [policy paper]. August 2005: 1. Available from WHO Web site: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/medicalwaste/mercurypolpaper.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 241 World Health Organization. Mercury in Health Care [policy paper]. August 2005: 1. Available from WHO Web site: http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/medicalwaste/mercurypolpaper.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 242 Health Canada. The Safety of Dental Amalgam. 1996: 13. Available from Health Canada Web site: http://www.hc-sc.gc.ca/dhp-mps/alt_formats/hpfbdgpsa/pdf/md-im/dent_amalgam-eng.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 243 Risher, JF (ATSDR). Elemental mercury and inorganic mercury compounds: human health aspects. Concise International Chemical Assessment Document 50. Geneva, Switzerland: Published under the joint sponsorship of the United Nations Environment Programme, the International Labour Organization, and the World Health Organization; 2003. Available from: http://www.inchem.org/documents/cicads/cicads/cicad50.htm. Accessed December 16, 2016. 244 Richardson GM. Inhalation of mercury-contaminated particulate matter by dentists: an overlooked occupational risk. Human and Ecological Risk Assessment. 2003; 9(6):1519-1531. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/10807030390251010. Accessed December 16, 2015. 245 Richardson GM, Wilson R, Allard D, Purtill C, Douma S, Gravière J. Mercury exposure and risks from dental amalgam in the US population, post2000. Sci Total Environ. 2011; 409(20):4257-4268. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711006607. Accessed December 16, 2015. 246 European Food Safety Authority (EFSA) Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM). EFSA Journal. 2012; 10(12):2985 [241 pp., see second to last paragraph for this quote]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2012.2985. Available from EFSA Web site: http://www.efsa.europa.eu/en/efsajournal/pub/2985.htm . 247 United States Environmental Protection Agency. Mercury: human exposure. Page last updated December 29, 2014. Available from United States Environmental Protection Agency Web site: http://www.epa.gov/hg/exposure.htm. Accessed March 1, 2015. 248 United States Food and Drug Administration. What you need to know about mercury in fish and shellfish. Page last updated June 10, 2014. Available from FDA Web site: http://www.fda.gov/Food/ResourcesForYou/Consumers/ucm110591.htm. Accessed March 1, 2015. 249 Most states have advisories. This is one example: State of Connecticut Department of Public Health. A woman’s guide to eating fish safely: special advice for pregnant women & young children. 2010. Available from Connecticut’s Official State Web site: http://www.ct.gov/dph/lib/dph/environmental_health/eoha/pdf/womans_guide_-english_2010.pdf. Accessed March 1, 2015. 250 Rani A, Rockne KJ, Drummond J, Al-Hinai M, Ranjan R. Geochemical influences and mercury methylation of a dental wastewater microbiome. Scientific Reports. 2015;5. Available from: http://www.nature.com/articles/srep12872. Accessed December 17, 2015. 251 Heintze U, Edwardsson S, Dérand T, Birkhed D. Methylation of mercury from dental amalgam and mercuric chloride by oral streptococci in vitro. European Journal of Oral Sciences. 1983; 91(2):150-2. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600- 0722.1983.tb00792.x/abstract. Accessed December 16, 2015. 252 Liang L, Brooks RJ. Mercury reactions in the human mouth with dental amalgams. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 1995; 80(1-4):103-7. 253 Sellars WA, Sllars R, Liang L, Hefley JD. Methyl mercury in dental amalgams in the human mouth. Journal of Nutritional & Environmental Medicine. 1996; 6(1):33-6. Abstract available from http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/13590849608999133. Accessed December 16, 2015. 254 Wang J, Liu Z. [In vitro study of Streptococcus mutans in the plaque on the surface of amalgam fillings on the conversion of inorganic mercury to organic mercury]. Shanghai kou qiang yi xue= Shanghai Journal of Stomatology. 2000; 9(2):70-2.Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15014810. Accessed December 16, 2015. 255 Rowland IR, Grasso P, Davies MJ. The methylization of mercuric chloride by human intestinal bacteria. Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences. 1975; 31(9): 1064-5. http://www.springerlink.com/content/b677m8k193676v17/ 256 Leistevuo J, Leistevuo T, Helenius H, Pyy L, Österblad M, Huovinen P, Tenovuo J. Dental amalgam fillings and the amount of organic mercury in human saliva. Caries Research. 2001;35(3):163-6. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 21 257 Podar M, Gilmour CC, Brandt CC, Soren A, Brown SD, Crable BR, Palumbo AV, Somenahally AC, Elias DA. Global prevalence and distribution of genes and microorganisms involved in mercury methylation. Science advances. 2015;1(9):e1500675. Available from: http://advances.sciencemag.org/content/1/9/e1500675.full. Accessed December 17, 2015. 258 Echeverria D, Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Rohlman D, Farin FM, Li T, Garabedian CE. The association between a genetic polymorphism of coproporphyrinogen oxidase, dental mercury exposure and neurobehavioral response in humans. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2006; 28(1):39-48. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0892036205001492. Accessed December 16, 2015. 259 Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Echeverria D, Russo JE, Martin MD, Bernardo MF, Luis HS, Vaz L, Farin FM. Modification of neurobehavioral effects of mercury by a genetic polymorphism of coproporphyrinogen oxidase in children. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012; 34(5):513-21. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462250/. Accessed December 16, 2015. 260 Gordon G. Dental group defends mercury fillings amid mounting evidence of risks. McClatchy News Service. January 5, 2016. Available from: http://www.mcclatchydc.com/news/nation-world/national/article53118775.html. Accessed January 5, 2016. 261 Gordon G. Dental group defends mercury fillings amid mounting evidence of risks. McClatchy News Service. January 5, 2016. Available from: http://www.mcclatchydc.com/news/nation-world/national/article53118775.html. Accessed January 5, 2016. 262 Wojcik DP, Godfrey ME, Christie D, Haley BE. Mercury toxicity presenting as chronic fatigue, memory impairment and depression: diagnosis, treatment, susceptibility, and outcomes in a New Zealand general practice setting: 1994-2006. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006; 27(4):415-423. Available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/16891999. Accessed December 16, 2015. 263 Breitner J, Kathleen A. Welsh KA, Gau BA, McDonald WM, Steffens DC, Saunders AM, Kathryn M. Magruder KM et al. Alzheimer’s Disease in the National Academy of Sciences–National Research Council Registry of Aging Twin Veterans: III. Detection of Cases, Longitudinal Results, and Observations on Twin Concordance. Archives of Neurology. 1995; 52(8):763. Abstract available from: http://archneur.jamanetwork.com/article.aspx?articleid=593579. Accessed December 16, 2015. 264 Haley BE. The relationship of the toxic effects of mercury to exacerbation of the medical condition classified as Alzheimer’s disease. Medical Veritas. 2007; 4(2):1510–1524. Abstract available from: http://www.medicalveritas.com/images/00161.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 265 Mutter J, Naumann J, Sadaghiani C, Schneider R, Walach H. Alzheimer disease: mercury as pathogenetic factor and apolipoprotein E as a moderator. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2004; 25(5): 331-339. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15580166. Accessed December 16, 2015. 266 Godfrey ME, Wojcik DP, Krone CA. Apolipoprotein E genotyping as a potential biomarker for mercury neurotoxicity. J Alzheimers Dis. 2003; 5(3):189- 195. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12897404. Accessed December 17, 2015. 267 Hultman P, Johansson U, Turley SJ, Lindh U, Enestrom S, Pollard KM. Adverse immunological effects and autoimmunity induced by dental amalgam and alloy in mice. FASEB J. 1994; 8(14):1183-90. Available from: http://www.fasebj.org/content/8/14/1183.full.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 268 Weiner JA, Nylander M, Berglund F. Does mercury from amalgam restorations constitute a health hazard? Sci Total Environ. 1990; 99(1):1-22. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/004896979090206A. Accessed December 17, 2015. 269 Stejskal VDM, Cederbrant K, Lindvall A, Forsbeck M. MELISA—an in vitro tool for the study of metal allergy. Toxicology in vitro. 1994; 8(5):991- 1000. Available from: http://www.melisa.org/pdf/MELISA-1994.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 270 Stejskal J, Stejskal VD. The role of metals in autoimmunity and the link to neuroendocrinology. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(6):351-366. Abstract available from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11458198. Accessed December 17, 2015. 271 Bernard S, Enayati A, Redwood L, Roger H, Binstock T. Autism: a novel form of mercury poisoning. Med Hypotheses. 2001; 56(4):462-71. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0306987700912817. Accessed December 17, 2015. 272 Mutter J, Naumann J, Schneider R, Walach H, Haley B. Mercury and autism: accelerating evidence. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005: 26(5):439-446. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16264412. Accessed December 17, 2015. 273 Zamm A. Dental mercury: a factor that aggravates and induces xenobiotic intolerance. Journal of Orthomolecular Medicine. 1991; (6)2. 274 Mutter J, Yeter D. Kawasaki’s disease, acrodynia, and mercury. Curr Med Chem. 2008; 15(28):3000-10. Abstract available from: http://www.ingentaconnect.com/content/ben/cmc/2008/00000015/00000028/art00007. Accessed December 17, 2015. 275 Engström K, Ameer S, Bernaudat L, Drasch G, Baeuml J, Skerfving S, Bose-O’Reilly S, Broberg, K. Polymorphisms in genes encoding potential mercury transporters and urine mercury concentrations in populations exposed to mercury vapor from gold mining. Environmental Health Perspectives. 2013; 121(1): 85. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3553430/. Accessed December 17, 2015. 276 Echeverria D, Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Rohlman DS, Farin FM, Bittner AC, Li T, Garabedian C. Chronic low-level mercury exposure, BDNF polymorphism, and associations with cognitive and motor function. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2005; 27(6):781-796. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0892036205001285. Accessed December 17, 2015. 277 Heyer NJ, Echeverria D, Bittner AC, Farin FM, Garabedian CC, Woods JS. Chronic low-level mercury exposure, BDNF polymorphism, and associations with self-reported symptoms and mood. Toxicological Sciences. 2004; 81(2):354-63. Available from: http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/81/2/354.long. Accessed December 17, 2015. 278 Parajuli RP, Goodrich JM, Chou HN, Gruninger SE, Dolinoy DC, Franzblau A, Basu N. Genetic polymorphisms are associated with hair, blood, and urine mercury levels in the American Dental Association (ADA) study participants. Environmental Research. 2015. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301602. Accessed December 17, 2015. 279 Parajuli RP, Goodrich JM, Chou HN, Gruninger SE, Dolinoy DC, Franzblau A, Basu N. Genetic polymorphisms are associated with hair, blood, and urine mercury levels in the American Dental Association (ADA) study participants. Environmental Research. 2015. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935115301602. Accessed December 17, 2015. 280 Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Russo JE, Martin MD, Pillai PB, Farin FM. Modification of neurobehavioral effects of mercury by genetic polymorphisms of metallothionein in children. Neurotoxicology and Teratology. 2013; 39:36-44. Available from: http://europepmc.org/articles/pmc3795926. Accessed December 18, 2015. 281 Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Echeverria D, Russo JE, Martin MD, Bernardo MF, Luis HS, Vaz L, Farin FM. Modification of neurobehavioral effects of mercury by a genetic polymorphism of coproporphyrinogen oxidase in children. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012; 34(5):513-21. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462250/. Accessed December 18, 2015. 282 Austin DW, Spolding B, Gondalia S, Shandley K, Palombo EA, Knowles S, Walder K. Genetic variation associated with hypersensitivity to mercury. Toxicology International. 2014; 21(3):236. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4413404/. Accessed December 17, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 22 283 Heyer NJ, Echeverria D, Bittner AC, Farin FM, Garabedian CC, Woods JS. Chronic low-level mercury exposure, BDNF polymorphism, and associations with self-reported symptoms and mood. Toxicological Sciences. 2004; 81(2):354-63. Available from: http://toxsci.oxfordjournals.org/content/81/2/354.long. Accessed December 17, 2015. 284 Cited as Inoue M. The Status Quo of Metal Allergy and Measures Against it in Dentistry. J.Jpn.Prosthodont.Soc. 1993; (37): 1127-1138. In Hosoki M, Nishigawa K. Dental metal allergy [book chapter]. Contact Dermatitis. [edited by Young Suck Ro, ISBN 978-953-307-577-8]. December 16, 2011. Page 91. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/25247. Accessed December 17, 2015. 285 North American Contact Dermatitis Group. Epidemiology of contact Dermatitis in North America. Arch Dermatol. 1972; 108:537-40. 286 Hosoki M, Nishigawa K. Dental metal allergy [book chapter]. Contact Dermatitis. [edited by Young Suck Ro, ISBN 978-953-307-577-8]. December 16, 2011. Page 91. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/25247. Accessed December 17, 2015. 287 Kaplan M. Infections may trigger metal allergies. Nature. 2007 May 2. Available from Nature Web site: http://www.nature.com/news/2007/070430/full/news070430-6.html. Accessed December 17, 2015. 288 Hosoki M, Nishigawa K. Dental metal allergy [book chapter]. Contact Dermatitis. [edited by Young Suck Ro, ISBN 978-953-307-577-8]. December 16, 2011. Page 107. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/25247. Accessed December 17, 2015. 289 Hosoki M, Nishigawa K. Dental metal allergy [book chapter]. Contact Dermatitis. [edited by Young Suck Ro, ISBN 978-953-307-577-8]. December 16, 2011. Page 91. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/25247. Accessed December 17, 2015. 290 Ziff S, Ziff M. Dentistry without Mercury. IAOMT: ChampionsGate, FL. 2014. Pages 16-18. 291 Pigatto PDM, Brambilla L, Ferrucci S, Guzzi G. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis due to galvanic couple between mercury amalgam and titanium implant. Skin Allergy Meeting. 2010. 292 Pigatto PDM, Brambilla L, Ferrucci S, Guzzi G. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis due to galvanic couple between mercury amalgam and titanium implant. Skin Allergy Meeting. 2010. 293 Pleva J. Corrosion and mercury release from dental amalgam. J. Orthomol. Med. 1989; 4(3): 141-158. 294 Rachmawati D, Buskermolen JK, Scheper RJ, Gibbs S, von Blomberg BM, van Hoogstraten IM. Dental metal-induced innate reactivity in keratinocytes. Toxicology in Vitro. 2015; 30(1):325-30. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0887233315002544. Accessed December 17, 2015. 295 Prochazkova J, Sterzl I, Kucerova H, Bartova J, Stejskal VD. The beneficial effect of amalgam replacement on health in patients with autoimmunity. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2004; 25(3):211-218. Available from: http://www.nel.edu/pdf_/25_3/NEL250304A07_Prochazkova_.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 296 Sterzl I, Procházková J, Hrdá P, Bártová J, Matucha P, Stejskal VD. Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 1999; 20:221-228. Available from: http://www.melisa.org/pdf/nialler.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 297 Stejskal VDM, Cederbrant K, Lindvall A, Forsbeck M. MELISA—an in vitro tool for the study of metal allergy. Toxicology in vitro. 1994; 8(5): 991- 1000. Available from: http://www.melisa.org/pdf/MELISA-1994.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 298 Stejskal I, Danersund A, Lindvall A, Hudecek R, Nordman V, Yaqob A, Mayer W, Bieger W, Lindh U. Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(5):289-298. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11460087. Accessed December 17, 2015. 299 Sterzl I, Procházková J, Hrdá P, Bártová J, Matucha P, Stejskal VD. Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 1999; 20:221-228. Available from: http://www.melisa.org/pdf/nialler.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 300 Stejskal V, Öckert K, Bjørklund G. Metal-induced inflammation triggers fibromyalgia in metal-allergic patients. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2013; 34(6). Available from: http://www.melisa.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Metal-induced-inflammation.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 301 Sterzl I, Procházková J, Hrdá P, Bártová J, Matucha P, Stejskal VD. Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 1999; 20:221-228. Available from: http://www.melisa.org/pdf/nialler.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 302 Venclikova Z, Benada O, Bartova J, Joska L, Mrklas L, Prochazkova J, Stejskal V, Podzimek S. In vivo effects of dental casting alloys. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2006; 27:61. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/16892010. Accessed December 17, 2015. 303 Pigatto PD, Minoia C, Ronchi A, Brambilla L, Ferrucci SM, Spadari F, Passoni M, Somalvico F, Bombeccari GP, Guzzi G. Allergological and toxicological aspects in a multiple chemical sensitivity cohort. Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity. 2013. Available from: http://downloads.hindawi.com/journals/omcl/2013/356235.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 304 Stejskal I, Danersund A, Lindvall A, Hudecek R, Nordman V, Yaqob A, Mayer W, Bieger W, Lindh U. Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(5):289-298. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11460087. Accessed December 17, 2015. 305 Prochazkova J, Sterzl I, Kucerova H, Bartova J, Stejskal VD. The beneficial effect of amalgam replacement on health in patients with autoimmunity. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2004; 25(3):211-218. Available from: http://www.nel.edu/pdf_/25_3/NEL250304A07_Prochazkova_.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 306 Stejskal I, Danersund A, Lindvall A, Hudecek R, Nordman V, Yaqob A, Mayer W, Bieger W, Lindh U. Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(5):289-298. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11460087. Accessed December 17, 2015. 307 Ditrichova D, Kapralova S, Tichy M, Ticha V, Dobesova J, Justova E, Eber M, Pirek P. Oral lichenoid lesions and allergy to dental materials. Biomedical Papers. 2007; 151(2): 333-339. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18345274. Accessed December 17, 2015. 308 Laine J, Kalimo K, Forssell H, Happonen R. Resolution of oral lichenoid lesions after replacement of amalgam restorations in patients allergic to mercury compounds. JAMA. 1992; 267(21):2880. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1992.tb08395.x/abstract. Accessed December 17, 2015. 309 Pang BK, Freeman S. Oral lichenoid lesions caused by allergy to mercury in amalgam fillings. Contact Dermatitis. 1995; 33(6):423-7. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1995.tb02079.x/abstract. Accessed December 17, 2015. 310 Syed M, Chopra R, Sachdev V. Allergic reactions to dental materials-a systematic review. Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR. 2015; 9(10):ZE04. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4625353/. Accessed December 18, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 23 311 Wong L, Freeman S. Oral lichenoid lesions (OLL) and mercury in amalgam fillings. Contact Dermatitis. 2003; 48(2):74-79. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1034/j.1600-0536.2003.480204.x/abstract?userIsAuthenticated=false&deniedAccessCustomisedMessage=. Accessed December 17, 2015. 312 Tomka M, Machovkova A, Pelclova D, Petanova J, Arenbergerova M, Prochazkova J. Orofacial granulomatosis associated with hypersensitivity to dental amalgam. Science Direct. 2011; 112(3):335-341. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Milan_Tomka/publication/51230248_Orofacial_granulomatosis_associated_with_hypersensitivity_to_dental_amalgam/ links/02e7e5269407a8c6d6000000.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 313 Podzimek S, Prochazkova J, Buitasova L, Bartova J, Ulcova-Gallova Z, Mrklas L, Stejskal VD. Sensitization to inorganic mercury could be a risk factor for infertility. Neuro Endocrinol Lett. 2005; 26(4):277-282. Available from: http://www.nel.edu/26-2005_4_pdf/NEL260405R01_Podzimek.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 314 Kall J, Just A, Aschner M. What’s the risk? Dental amalgam, mercury exposure, and human health risks throughout the lifespan. Epigenetics, the Environment, and Children’s Health across Lifespans. David J. Hollar, ed. Springer. 2016. pp. 159-206 (Chapter 7). 315 Barregard L, Fabricius-Lagging E, Lundh T, Molne J, Wallin M, Olausson M, Modigh C, Sallsten G. Cadmium, mercury, and lead in kidney cortex of living kidney donors: impact of different exposure sources. Environ Res. 2010; 110(1): 47-54. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Johan_Moelne/publication/40024474_Cadmium_mercury_and_lead_in_kidney_cortex_of_living_kidney_donors_Impa ct_of_different_exposure_sources/links/0c9605294e28e1f04d000000.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 316 Bergdahl IA, Ahlqwist M, Barregard L, Björkelund C, Blomstrand A, Skerfving S, Sundh V, Wennberg M, Lissner L. Mercury in serum predicts low risk of death and myocardial infarction in Gothenburg women. Int Arch Occup Environ Health. 2013; 86(1): 71-77. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s00420-012-0746-8. Accessed December 17, 2015. 317 Dye BA, Schober SE, Dillon CF, Jones RL, Fryar C, McDowell M, et al. Urinary mercury concentrations associated with dental restorations in adult women aged 16–49 years: United States, 1999–2000. Occup Environ Med. 2005; 62(6):368–75. Abstract available from: http://oem.bmj.com/content/62/6/368.short. Accessed December 17, 2015. 318 Eggleston DW, Nylander M. Correlation of dental amalgam with mercury in brain tissue. J Prosthet Dent. 1987; 58(6): 704-707. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0022391387904240. Accessed December 17, 2015. 319 Fakour H, Esmaili-Sari A. Occupational and environmental exposure to mercury among Iranian hairdressers. Journal of Occupational Health. 2014; 56(1):56-61. Abstract available from: https://www.jstage.jst.go.jp/article/joh/56/1/56_13-0008-OA/_article. Accessed December 15, 2015. 320 Geer LA, Persad MD, Palmer CD, Steuerwald AJ, Dalloul M, Abulafia O, Parsons PJ. Assessment of prenatal mercury exposure in a predominately Caribbean immigrant community in Brooklyn, NY. J Environ Monit. 2012; 14(3):1035-1043. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Laura_Geer/publication/221832284_Assessment_of_prenatal_mercury_exposure_in_a_predominately_Caribbean_immi grant_community_in_Brooklyn_NY/links/540c89680cf2df04e754718a.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 321 Geier DA, Kern JK, Geier MR. A prospective study of prenatal mercury exposure from dental amalgams and autism severity. Neurobiolgiae Experimentals Polish Neuroscience Society. 2009; 69(2): 189-197. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19593333. Accessed December 17, 2015. 322 Gibicar D, Horvat M, Logar M, Fajon V, Falnoga I, Ferrara R, Lanzillotta E, Ceccarini C, Mazzolai B, Denby B, Pacyna J. Human exposure to mercury in the vicinity of chlor-alkali plant. Environ Res. 2009; 109(4): 355-367. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0013935109000188. Accessed December 17, 2015. 323 Krausß P, Deyhle M, Maier KH, Roller E, Weiß HD, Clédon P. Field study on the mercury content of saliva. Toxicological & Environmental Chemistry. 1997; 63, (1-4):29-46. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02772249709358515#.VnM7_PkrIgs. Accessed December 16, 2015. 324 McGrother CW, Dugmore C, Phillips MJ, Raymond NT, Garrick P, Baird WO. Epidemiology: Multiple sclerosis, dental caries and fillings: a casecontrol study. Br Dent J. 1999; 187(5): 261-264. Available from: http://www.nature.com/bdj/journal/v187/n5/full/4800255a.html. Accessed December 17, 2015. 325 Pesch A, Wilhelm M, Rostek U, Schmitz N, Weishoff-Houben M, Ranft U, et al. Mercury concentrations in urine, scalp hair, and saliva in children from Germany. J Expo Anal Environ Epidemiol. 2002; 12(4):252–8. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/12087431. Accessed December 17, 2015. 326 Richardson GM, Wilson R, Allard D, Purtill C, Douma S, Gravière J. Mercury exposure and risks from dental amalgam in the US population, post2000. Sci Total Environ. 2011; 409(20):4257-4268. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969711006607. Accessed December 16, 2015. 327 Rothwell JA, Boyd PJ. Amalgam fillings and hearing loss. International Journal of Audiology. 2008; 47(12): 770-776. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/14992020802311224. Accessed December 17, 2015. 328 Gundacker C, Komarnicki G, Zödl B, Forster C, Schuster E, Wittmann K. Whole blood mercury and selenium concentrations in a selected Austrian population: Does gender matter? Sci Total Environ. 2006; 372(1): 76-86. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048969706006255. Accessed December 17, 2015. 329 Richardson GM, Brecher RW, Scobie H, Hamblen J, Samuelian J, Smith C. Mercury vapour (Hg(0)): Continuing toxicological uncertainties, and establishing a Canadian reference exposure level. Regul Toxicol Pharmicol. 2009; 53(1):32-38. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273230008002304. Accessed December 17, 2015. 330 Sun YH, Nfor ON, Huang JY, Liaw YP. Association between dental amalgam fillings and Alzheimer’s disease: a population-based cross-sectional study in Taiwan. Alzheimer’s Research & Therapy. 2015; 7(1):1-6. Available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1186/s13195-015-0150-1/fulltext.html. Accessed December 17, 2015. 331 Watson GE, Evans K, Thurston SW, van Wijngaarden E, Wallace JM, McSorley EM, Bonham MP, Mulhern MS, McAfee AJ, Davidson PW, Shamlaye CF, Strain JJ, Love T, Zareba G, Myers GJ. Prenatal exposure to dental amalgam in the Seychelles Child Development Nutrition Study: Associations with neurodevelopmental outcomes at 9 and 30 months. Neurotoxicology. 2012. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3576043/. Accessed December 17, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 24 332 Woods JS, Heyer NJ, Echeverria D, Russo JE, Martin MD, Bernardo MF, Luis HS, Vaz L, Farin FM. Modification of neurobehavioral effects of mercury by a genetic polymorphism of coproporphyrinogen oxidase in children. Neurotoxicol Teratol. 2012; 34(5):513-21. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3462250/. Accessed December 17, 2015. 333 Lyttle HA, Bowden GH. The level of mercury in human dental plaque and interaction in vitro between biofilms of streptococcus mutans and dental amalgam. Journal of Dental Research. 1993;72(9): 1320-1324. Abstract available from: http://jdr.sagepub.com/content/72/9/1320.short. Accessed December 17, 2015. 334 Raymond LJ, Ralston NVC. Mercury: selenium interactions and health complications. Seychelles Medical and Dental Journal. 2004; 7(1): 72-77. 335 Haley BE. Mercury toxicity: genetic susceptibility and synergistic effects. Medical Vertias. 2005; 2(2): 535-542. 336 Haley BE. The relationship of the toxic effects of mercury to exacerbation of the medical condition classified as Alzheimer’s disease. Medical Veritas. 2007; 4(2):1510–1524. Available from: http://www.medicalveritas.com/images/00161.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 337 Ingalls TH. Epidemiology, etiology, and prevention of multiple sclerosis. Hypothesis and fact. Am. J. Forensic Med. Pathol. 1983; 4(1):55-61. 338 Schubert J, Riley EJ, Tyler SA. Combined effects in toxicology—a rapid systematic testing procedure: Cadmium, mercury, and lead. Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health, Part A Current Issues. 1978; 4(5-6):763-776. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/15287397809529698. Accessed December 17, 2015. 339 Kostial K, Rabar I, Ciganovic M, Simonovic I. Effect of milk on mercury absorption and gut retention in rats. Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology. 1979; 23(1): 566-571. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/497464. Accessed December 17, 2015. 340 Mata L, Sanchez L, Calvo, M. Interaction of mercury with human and bovine milk proteins. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem. 1997; 61(10): 1641-4. Available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/pdf/10.1271/bbb.61.1641. Accessed December 17, 2015. 341 Hursh JB, Greenwood MR, Clarkson TW, Allen J, Demuth S. The effect of ethanol on the fate of mercury inhaled by man. JPET. 1980; 214(3):520-527. Abstract available from: http://jpet.aspetjournals.org/content/214/3/520.short. Accessed December 17, 2015. 342 Kall J, Just A, Aschner M. What’s the risk? Dental amalgam, mercury exposure, and human health risks throughout the lifespan. Epigenetics, the Environment, and Children’s Health across Lifespans. David J. Hollar, ed. Springer. 2016. pp. 159-206 (Chapter 7). 343 United Nations Environment Programme and World Health Organization. Promoting the Phase Down Approach of Dental Amalgam in Developing Countries. Geneva, Switzerland: UNEP and WHO. 2014: 9. Available from UNEP Web site: http://www.unep.org/chemicalsandwaste/Portals/9/Mercury/Products/dental%20mercury%20phase%20down%20project%20brochure%20FINAL_lr.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 344 Arenholt-Bindslev D, Larsen AH. Mercury levels and discharge in waste water from dental clinics. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution. 1996; 86(1-4):93-9. Abstract available from: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/BF00279147. Accessed December 17, 2015. 345 Hylander LD, Lindvall A, Uhrberg R, Gahnberg L, Lindh U. Mercury recovery in situ of four different dental amalgam separators. Science of the total environment. 2006; 366(1):320-36. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Lars_Hylander/publication/7582488_Mercury_recovery_in_situ_of_four_different_dental_amalgam_separators/links/5 4e727b50cf2cd2e0291297c.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 346 Cited as Vandeven J, McGinnis S. An assessment of mercury in the form of amalgam in dental wastewater in the United States. Water, Air and Soil Pollution. 2005; 164: 349-366. DCN 0469. In Frost A, Madden R. Reducing Mercury from the Environment: An Assessment of Dental Amalgam. 2014. Page 11. Available from: https://www.phasa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/DRI-Minamata-Paper.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 347 United States Environmental Protection Agency. Effluent Limitation Guidelines and Standards for the Dental Category Mercury in Dental Amalgam. EPA – 821-F-14-002. September 2014. Available from EPA Website: http://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-06/documents/dental-categoryfactsheet_proposed_rule_2014.pdf. Accessed December 15, 2015. 348 Frost A, Madden R. Reducing Mercury from the Environment: An Assessment of Dental Amalgam. 2014. Page 13. Available from: https://www.phasa.org.za/wp-content/uploads/2014/10/DRI-Minamata-Paper.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 349 Royal College of Dental Surgeons in Ontario. Amalgam waste disposal. Standard of Practice. November 2003. Reported upon in Royal College of Dental Surgeons in Ontario. Maintaining an amalgam separator. Dispatch. May/June 2009; 23(2): 40-41. Available from: http://www.rcdso.org/save.aspx?id=bf43f9b3-6905-4f2a-844d-2c9b0c934a39. Accessed December 17, 2015. 350 Laske Mark, Opdam Niek JM, Bronkhorst Ewald M, Braspenning Joze CC, Huysmans Marie-Charlotte D.N.J.M. Longevity of direct restorations in Dutch dental practices. Descriptive study out of a practice based research network. Journal of Dentistry. 2016. Abstract available from: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jdent.2016.01.002. Accessed January 12, 2016. 351 McCracken MS, Gordan VV, Litaker MS, Funkhouser E, Fellows JL, Shamp DG, Qvist V, Meral JS, Gilbert GH. A 24-month evaluation of amalgam and resin-based composite restorations: Findings from The National Dental Practice-Based Research Network. The Journal of the American Dental Association. 2013; 144(6):583-93. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3694730/. Accessed December 17, 2015. 352 Laccabue M, Ahlf RL, Simecek JW. Frequency of restoration replacement in posterior teeth for US Navy and Marine Corps personnel. Operative dentistry. 2014; 39(1):43-9. Abstract available from: http://www.jopdentonline.org/doi/abs/10.2341/12-406-C. Accessed December 17, 2015. 353 Pallesen U, van Dijken JW. A randomized controlled 30 years follow up of three conventional resin composites in Class II restorations. Dental Materials. 2015; 31(10):1232-44. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0109564115003607. Accessed December 17, 2015. 354 Opdam NJ, van de Sande FH, Bronkhorst E, Cenci MS, Bottenberg P, Pallesen U, Gaengler P, Lindberg A, Huysmans MC, van Dijken JW. Longevity of Posterior Composite Restorations: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis. Journal of Dental Research. 2014; 93(10):943-9. Available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4293707/. Accessed January 18, 2016. 355 Heintze SD, Rousson V. Clinical effectiveness of direct class II restorations—a meta-analysis. J Adhes Dent. 2012; 14(5):407-31. Available from: http://www.osteocom.net/osteocom/modules/Friend/images/heintze_13062.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 356 Rodolpho PAD, Donassollo TA, Cenci MS, Loguércio AD, Moraes RR, Bronkhorst EM, Opdam NJ, Demarco FF. 22-Year clinical evaluation of the performance of two posterior composites with different filler characteristics. Dental Materials. 2011; 27(10):955-63. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Rafael_Moraes6/publication/51496272_22- Year_clinical_evaluation_of_the_performance_of_two_posterior_composites_with_different_filler_characteristics/links/00b7d531750b429121000000.pdf. Accessed January 18, 2016. 357 See Admira Fusion on the VOCO website at http://www.voco.com/us/product/admira_fusion/index.html. Accessed January 18, 2016. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 25 358 See Admira Fusion X-tra on the VOCO website at http://www.voco.com/us/product/admira_fusion_xtra/index.html. Accessed January 18, 2016 359 See Admira/Admira Fusion X-tra News on VOCO website at http://www.voco.com/en/company/news/Admira_Fusion-Admira_Fusion_x-tra/index.html. Accessed January 18, 2016. 360 Koral S. A practical guide to compatibility testing for dental materials. 2015. Available from the IAOMT Website. https://iaomt.org/practical-guidecompatibility-testing-dental-materials/. Accessed December 17, 2015. 361 Biocomp Laboratories Website is http://www.biocomplabs.com/about.html. 362 Clifford Consulting and Research Website is http://www.ccrlab.com/. 363 Stejskal VD, Cederbrant K, Lindvall A, Forsbeck M. MELISA—an in vitro tool for the study of metal allergy. Toxicology in vitro. 1994; 8(5):991-1000. Available from: http://www.melisa.org/pdf/MELISA-1994.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. MELISA Web site is http://www.melisa.org/. 364 Redhe O, Pleva J. Recovery of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and from allergy after removal of dental amalgam fillings. Int J Risk & Safety in Med. 1994; 4(3): 229-236. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jaro_Pleva/publication/235899060_Recovery_from_amyotrophic_lateral_sclerosis_and_from_allergy_after_removal_o f_dental_amalgam_fillings/links/0fcfd513f4c3e10807000000.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 365 Sterzl I, Prochazkova J, Hrda P, Matucha P, Stejskal VD. Mercury and nickel allergy: risk factors in fatigue and autoimmunity. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(3-4):221-228. Available from: http://www.melisa.org/pdf/nialler.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 366 Pigatto PDM, Brambilla L, Ferrucci S, Guzzi G. Systemic allergic contact dermatitis due to galvanic couple between mercury amalgam and titanium implant. Skin Allergy Meeting. 2010. 367 Stejskal V, Öckert K, Bjørklund G. Metal-induced inflammation triggers fibromyalgia in metal-allergic patients. Neuroendocrinology Letters. 2013; 34(6). Available from: http://www.melisa.org/wp-content/uploads/2013/04/Metal-induced-inflammation.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 368 Redhe O, Pleva J. Recovery of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and from allergy after removal of dental amalgam fillings. Int J Risk & Safety in Med. 1994; 4(3): 232-233. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Jaro_Pleva/publication/235899060_Recovery_from_amyotrophic_lateral_sclerosis_and_from_allergy_after_removal_o f_dental_amalgam_fillings/links/0fcfd513f4c3e10807000000.pdf. Accessed December 16, 2015. 369 Finne KAJ, Göransson K, Winckler L. Oral lichen planus and contact allergy to mercury. International Journal of Oral Surgery. 1982; 11(4):236-239. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300978582800732. Accessed December 17, 2015. 370 Lind PO, Hurlen B, Lyberg T, Aas E. Amalgam-related oral lichenoid reaction. Scand J Dent Res. 1986; 94(5):448-51. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0722.1986.tb01786.x/abstract. Accessed December 17, 2015. 371 Lundstrom IM. Allergy and corrosion of dental materials in patients with oral lichen planus. Int J Oral Surg. 1984; 13(1):16. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0300978584800514. Accessed December 17, 2015. 372 Camisa C, Taylor JS, Bernat JR, Helm TN. Contact hypersensitivity to mercury in amalgam restorations may mimic oral lichen planus. Cutis. 1999; 63(3):189-92. Abstract available from: http://europepmc.org/abstract/med/10190076. Accessed December 17, 2015. 373 Laine J, Kalimo K, Forssell H, Happonen R. Resolution of oral lichenoid lesions after replacement of amalgam restorations in patients allergic to mercury compounds. JAMA. 1992; 267(21):2880. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1365-2133.1992.tb08395.x/abstract. Accessed December 17, 2015. 374 Pang BK, Freeman S. Oral lichenoid lesions caused by allergy to mercury in amalgam fillings. Contact Dermatitis. 1995; 33(6):423-7. Abstract available from: http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1111/j.1600-0536.1995.tb02079.x/abstract. Accessed December 17, 2015. 375 Tomka M, Machovkova A, Pelclova D, Petanova J, Arenbergerova M, Prochazkova J. Orofacial granulomatosis associated with hypersensitivity to dental amalgam. Science Direct. 2011; 112(3):335-341. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Milan_Tomka/publication/51230248_Orofacial_granulomatosis_associated_with_hypersensitivity_to_dental_amalgam/ links/02e7e5269407a8c6d6000000.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 376 Stejskal I, Danersund A, Lindvall A, Hudecek R, Nordman V, Yaqob A, Mayer W, Bieger W, Lindh U. Metal-specific lymphocytes: biomarkers of sensitivity in man. Neuroendocrinol Lett. 1999; 20(5): 289-298. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11460087. Accessed December 17, 2015. 377 Hosoki M, Nishigawa K. Dental metal allergy [book chapter]. Contact Dermatitis. [edited by Young Suck Ro, ISBN 978-953-307-577-8]. December 16, 2011. Page 99. Available from: http://www.intechopen.com/download/get/type/pdfs/id/25247. Accessed December 17, 2015. 378 Björkman L, Brokstad KA, Moen K, Jonsson R. Minor changes in serum levels of cytokines after removal of amalgam restorations. Toxicology Letters. 2012; 211(2):120-5. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0378427412008715. Accessed December 17, 2015. 379 Hanson, M. Health and amalgam removal: a meta-analysis of 25 studies. Tf-bladet Bull of the Swedish Association of Dental Mercury Patients. Tf-bladet no. 2 2004 and SOU 2003:53 appendix 10, Sw. Dept. of Health. 204-216. Available from: https://iaomt.org/wp-content/uploads/article_Hanson-effects-ofamal-removal.pdf. Accessed December 17, 2015. 380 Huggins HA, Levy TE. Cerebrospinal fluid protein changes in multiple sclerosis after dental amalgam removal. Altern Med Rev. 1998; 3(4): 295-300. Abstract available from: http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9727079. Accessed December 17, 2015. 381 Lindqvist B, Mörnstad H. Effects of removing amalgam fillings from patients with diseases affecting the immune system. Medical Science Research. 1996; 24(5):355-356. 382 Lygre GB, Sjursen TT, Svahn J, Helland V, Lundekvam BF, Dalen K, Björkman L. Characterization of health complaints before and after removal of amalgam fillings—3-year follow-up. Acta Odontologica Scandinavica. 2013; 71(3-4):560-9. Abstract available from: http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.3109/00016357.2012.697577. Accessed December 17, 2015. 383 Siblerud RL. A comparison of mental health of multiple sclerosis patients with silver/mercury dental fillings and those with fillings removed. Psychol Rep. 1992; 70(3pt 2):1136-51. Abstract available from: http://www.amsciepub.com/doi/abs/10.2466/pr0.1992.70.3c.1139?journalCode=pr0. Accessed December 17, 2015. 384 Siblerud RL, Kienholz E. Evidence that mercury from silver dental fillings may be an etiological factor in multiple sclerosis. The Science of the Total Environment. 1994; 142(3): 191-205. Abstract available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/0048969794903271. Accessed December 17, 2015. The Toxic Effects of Dental Amalgam; 2016; www.iaomt.org Page 26

Kenmore Holistic Dentist Dr Rachel Hall of Evolve Dental Healing trusts that you have found these references to be supportive.

© 2019 Evolve Dental Healing
| All Rights Reserved | Privacy Policy

Evolve Dental Kenmore